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1 Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: -
Presentation By Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: -


3 Joint movement – what are joints?
A joint is a place where two or more bones meet. Without joints, our bodies would not be able to move. Joints, along with the skeleton and muscular system, are responsible for the huge range of movement that the human body can produce. There are several different types of joint, each producing different types and amounts of movement. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

4 Different types of joint
There are 3 different types of joint: 1. Immovable (or fixed) joints 2. Slightly movable joints Reference to skeletal structures could be enhanced by using a skeleton or skeletal models if available. Use this presentation to remind students of the names of a range of bones. Students must be confident in naming the bones of the skeleton and their position/ location in the body. Without this understanding they will struggle to identify the bones that form joints. 3. Movable (or synovial) joints

5 1. Fixed or immovable joints
There are fewer than 10 immovable joints in the body. They are sometimes called fibrous joints because the bones are held together by tough fibres. Immovable joints can be found in the skull and pelvis, where several bones have fused together to form a rigid structure. Fixed or immoveable joints such as those of the flat bones of the skull allow very slight movement – ask students why they should allow a little movement. Movement is necessary for expansion of the soft tissues of the brain and to absorb some of the force of impacts – if joints were completely fixed they might crack with an impact such as a blow on the head.

6 Interosseous Membrane
Suture Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber Only found in skull Syndesmoses Bones connected by ligaments E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna Interosseous Membrane A sheet that binds neighbouring long bone and permit a very little moment

7 2. Slightly movable joints
Slightly movable joints are sometimes called cartilaginous joints. The bones are separated by a cushion of cartilage. The joints between the vertebrae in the spine are cartilaginous joints. The bones can move a little bit, but ligaments stop them moving too far. This is why we can bend, straighten and rotate through the back, but not too far. bone cartilage bone Discuss with students the structure of the spinal column and why slightly moveable joints are the most suitable type of joint for the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine areas. Ask them why the sacrum and coccyx areas of the spine are fixed joints? Answer: for attachment of lower back muscles (Sacrum) and balance (coccyx). ligaments

8 Synchondrosis Symphyses Hyaline cartilage unites bones
Epiphyseal growth plates Costal cartilage-sternum Symphyses Fibrocartilage unites bones Pubic symphysis Intervertebral disc

9 3. Freely movable or synovial joints
90% of the joints in the body are synovial joints. They are freely movable. Synovial joints contain synovial fluid which is retained inside a pocket called the synovial membrane. This lubricates or ‘oils’ the joint. All the moving parts are held together by ligaments. These are highly mobile joints, like the shoulder and knee. Synovial fluid Synovial joints offer a wide range of sporting movement. Synovial membrane Knee



12 Connective tissues Connective tissues are vital to the functioning of joints. There are 3 types of connective tissue: Ligaments are tough, elastic fibres that link bones to bones. Tendons connect muscles to bones. Discussion of the properties of the different connective tissues would be relevant here. Ligaments – are elastic allowing the bones to twist and turn – however if the stress on the ligaments is too great or forceful they can be overstretched or torn (like an elastic band) and will cause injury to the sportsperson. The cruciate ligaments of the knee are commonly injured in sport. Cartilage – is found at the ends of bones and is smooth and slightly flexible providing shock absorption and reducing friction for ease of movement between bones/ joints Tendons – are less elastic and join bone to muscle – like ligaments they can be damaged by the stress and strain of excessive movements – the achilles tendon that joins the foot to the calf muscle (gastrocnemius) can be injured through repeated jumping movements. Cartilage prevents the ends of bones rubbing together at joints. Its slippery surface also helps to lubricate the joint.

13 Tendons and ligaments Ligaments are responsible for holding joints together. They prevent bones moving out of position during the stresses of physical activity. If they are pulled or twisted too far by extreme physical movements, ligaments can tear and the joint may dislocate. Tendons anchor muscles to bones, allowing the muscles to move the skeleton. Tendons are not very elastic – if they were, then the force produced by muscles would be absorbed instead of creating movement. Tendons can also be torn if subjected to too much force.

14 Types of synovial joints
In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup-shaped ending on another bone. Hip Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints. Examples: Shoulders and hips. Describe ball and socket joints at the hip and shoulder. Discuss the movements possible at these joints. How do they help during sport?


16 Types of synovial joints
Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate. These joints only allow rotation. Atlas Examples: The joint between the atlas and axis in the neck which allows you to shake your head. Axis


18 Types of synovial joints
In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation. Examples: The thumb is the only one. Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement. Examples: The knee and elbow. Elbow


20 Types of synovial joints
Condyloid joints have an oval-shaped bone end which fits into a correspondingly shaped bone end. They allow forwards, backwards, left and right movement, but not rotation. Examples: between the metacarpals and phalanges in the hand.


22 Types of synovial joints
Gliding joints have two flat faces of bone that slide over one another. They allow a tiny bit of movement in all directions. Examples: between the tarsals in the ankle.


24 Types of synovial joints
Convex surface of bone fits in concave surface of 2nd bone Unixlateral like a door hinge Examples: Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints Movements produced: flexion extension hyperextension


26 Synovial joints – sporting examples
During the butterfly stroke, the ball and socket joint of the shoulder allows the swimmer’s arm to rotate. You might head a football using the pivot joint in your neck, which allows your head to rotate. Answer: The condyloid joints between the metacarpals and phalanges. Swimmer image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

27 Synovial joints – sporting examples
The saddle joint allows the thumb to curl around a canoe paddle to give a firm grip. The hinge joint at the knee allows the leg to flex and extend, for example when a hurdler extends their trail leg at take-off and then flexes it as they clear the hurdle. Suggested answer: Footballer changing direction – ankle twists sideways slightly. Hurdler image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

28 Planes

29 Anatomical Position

30 Various Movements Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist

31 (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and
hyperextension of the neck Hyperextension Extension Flexion

32 Hyperextension Flexion Extension (c) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column

33 Extension Flexion (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee

34 Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction

35 Lateral rotation Medial Rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb

36 Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna)

37 Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

38 Eversion Inversion (c) Inversion and eversion

39 Protraction of mandible Retraction (d) Protraction and retraction

40 Elevation of mandible Depression (e) Elevation and depression

41 (f) Opposition Opposition


43 Thanks for downloading…… Do Comment plz…….
By : - Jaspreet Rekhi

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