2 Objectives: Know the different types of plants. Know structures and functions of plant parts.Be able to label and explain function of flower parts.Know pollination, fertilization and germinationKnow what tropisms are.Know the process of photosynthesis (what happens and where it happens)
3 Main Characteristics Cells contain a nucleus Make their own food Cells contain a cell wallMulticellularCan not move from place to place
4 Plant Kingdom Nonvascular Vascular can be such as may in produce seeds NOT produce seedsmosses and liverwortsfernshorsetailsclub mossesflowers(Angiosperms)cones(Gymnosperms)MonocotDicotPine trees, evergreens
5 Types of Plants 1. Nonvascular Plants 2. Vascular Plants Do NOT have conducting tissue (pipes) to transport water and nutrients.These plants are small and use diffusion and osmosis to move materials.Examples: mosses and liverworts2. Vascular PlantsContain conducting tissue (pipes) to deliver needed materials throughout the plant.Vascular plants can be any size
6 Types of Vascular Plants 1. Plants without seeds.Help form soil and prevent erosionExamples: ferns, horsetails and club mosses2. Plants with seeds.Have a two part life cyclesporophyte - produce sporesgametophyte - produce sex cells
7 Types of Seed Plants 1. Gymnosperms 2. Angiosperms Non-flowering or fruit bearing plantsProduce cones instead of flowers and fruits.Examples: Conifers and evergreens2. AngiospermsFlowering plantsUse flowers (attract animals) and fruits (protect seeds) for reproduction.Flowering plants provide food for animals.
8 Seed StructureCotyledon - a seed leaf. Provides food for the embryo before it can make its own food.
9 Types of Angiosperms 1. Monocots 2. Dicots Contains 1 seed leaf (cotyledon)Flower parts in threesLeaves with parallel veinsVascular tissue scatteredFibrous rootsExamples: grasses, onions, lillies, palms2. DicotsContains 2 seed leaves (cotyledons)Flower parts in fours or fivesLeaves with branching veinsVascular tissue in a ringTaprootsExamples: roses, cactuses, sunflowers, peanuts
11 - Write down section headings and bullets for each paragraph. - DO NOT WRITE ON THE SHEET I give you!- Write down section headings and bullets for each paragraph.- You will have 8 minutes to read and chapter title.- You will then discuss your answers with the group and make a list of important information for the class.
12 In groups you will need: A time keeperA recorder All students must participate inA reporter answering questions!!!A managerA collectorYou need to determine the important information that the class needs to know and write that information neat and large on the construction paper.Write the question on the top of the page and then bullet key information.You will have 10 minutes.
13 MonocotDicotMonocotDicotParts in 3’sParts in 4’s or 5’s1 cotyledon2 cotyledonsDicotMonocotNet-veinedParallel veinsDicotMonocotMonocotDicotIn a ringScatteredfibroustaproot
14 Angiosperm Structure Angiosperms are made up of: Roots Stems Leaves Flowers
16 RootsMain Functions:Supply plant with water and minerals that are absorbed from the soilSupport and anchor plantStore food made during photosynthesis
17 Root Types1. Tap Root -One main root growing down with smaller roots coming off.Example: carrots2. Fibrous Root -Several roots that are the same size.Example: grass
18 Stems Main Functions: Support plant body Some stems can store materials.Example: cactus stores waterTransport materials between roots and leavesXylem - carries water and minerals upward from the rootsPhloem - carries food downward to roots for storage and to other parts of the plant
19 Stem Types 1. Herbaceous Soft, flexible plant 2. Woody Rigid stems made of wood and bark
20 Leaves Main Functions: Parts of the Leaf: Capture sunlight to make foodControl movement of gases in plant.Parts of the Leaf:Cuticle - waxy covering that protects against water lossChloroplasts - contain chlorophyll to capture sunlightVeins - Move water, food and nutrients through xylem and phloemStomata - openings under the leaf to let in carbon dioxide and give off water and oxygen.Guard cells - open and close the stomata
22 Flowers Parts of the Flower Main Functions: Used for sexual reproductionParts of the FlowerSepal - protects immature flower when it is a budPetals - attract insects and animalsStamen - male reproductive partsAnther - produces pollen grainsFilament - thin stalk, that anther sits on
23 Parts of the Flower Continued Pistil - female reproductive partsStigma - collects pollenStyle- pollen travels down to reach eggOvary - develops into the fruitOvule - inside the ovary; contains the egg. Develops into a seed after fertilization.
24 Flower Project Extra Credit Using the internet or gardening magazine or book:Choose a flowering plantDraw a picture of the plantLabel the parts (roots, stems, leaves and flower)Describe one main function of each part.Name of the plantYour name & class period
26 Pollination & Fertilization 1. What type of reproduction occurs in flowering plants?Sexual reproduction- egg and sperm are needed- offspring look different than parents
27 3. What has to happen in order for fertilization to occur? 2. What is pollination?Pollination occurs when pollen grains are transported from anthers to stigmas.- Self-pollination: egg and sperm from the same plant- Cross-pollination: egg and sperm from different plants3. What has to happen in order for fertilization to occur?- The sperm inside the pollen must get from stigma to ovary.- A pollen tube forms from stigma to ovary.
29 Flower Dissection Lab Directions Pull off the petals gently. Count the number of petals.Remove the stamens. Draw and label the parts. Be careful not to remove the stigma and style.Draw and label the female parts. Remove the stigma and style.With your fingernail open up the ovary and draw what you see inside.pistil
30 Flower Dissection Lab Questions Classify the flowering plant we dissected today using one or more of the words below:gymnosperm, nonvascular, angiosperm, seedless, vascular, seededDetermine whether the plant is a monocot or dicot. Give at least two reasons for your answer.Explain the function of each flower parts below:a) sepal b) anther c) petal d) ovary e) stigma f) ovuleg) stamen h) style i) pistil j) filamentDescribe how pollination occurs.Explain the path pollen takes from the top of the female part of the flower to the egg.Describe how fertilization occurs in plants.
31 5. What takes place after fertilization? 4. What is fertilization?- Fertilization occurs when the sperm from the pollen grain fuses (joins) with the egg inside the ovule.5. What takes place after fertilization?- The ovule develops into a seed.- The ovary develops into a fruit.
32 7. What does a seed need to grow? 6. What are dormant seeds?- They are seeds that are inactive (not growing or developing).7. What does a seed need to grow?wateroxygenproper temperature8. What is germination?- Germination is the sprouting of a seed.
34 Asexual Reproduction in Plants Vegetative propagation:A root or stem can become a new plantExamples:- cuttings: using part of stem or root- runners: stems that run along the ground and buds grow off it.- plantlets: tiny plants grow on leavesrunnercuttingplantlet
35 Tropisms: Growth in response to a stimulus Examples:phototropism: response to lightgravitropism (geotropism): response to gravityhydrotropism: response to waterthigmotropism: response to touch
36 The process by which plants make food using sunlight. PhotosynthesisThe process by which plants make food using sunlight.1. What is needed for photosynthesis?- sunlight: chloroplasts in leaves- carbon dioxide: stomata in leaves- water: absorbed by roots2. What does chlorophyll do?- chlorophyll absorbs sunlight in the leaves
37 3. What is the equation for photosynthesis? sunlight + carbon dioxide + water ---> sugar + oxygenSunlight + 6 CO2 + 6 H2O ----> C6H12O6 + 6 O2Excess sugar travels down phloem to be stored in the roots.Oxygen leaves the plant through the stomata of the leaves.
38 1. A and B from above make up the _________. CFGBonus:1. A and B from above make up the _________.2. D,E, F from above make up the _________.
39 C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy Cellular Respiration:Converts the energy stored in food into a form of energy the plant can use.glucose + oxygen ----->carbon dioxide + water + energyC6H12O6 + 6 O2 ----> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energyThis process occurs in the mitochondria of both plant and animal cells.Transpiration:Water loss from leaves through stomata.