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Understanding Psychological Evaluations

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1 Understanding Psychological Evaluations
In-service for Speech and Language Pathologists March 10, 2009 Presented by: Caren Baruch-Feldman, Ph.D. (914)

2 Psychological Evaluations
What Do They Measure? What Do They Mean? How Can They Be Used In Conjunction With Speech and Language Evaluations?

3 Why This Talk Is Important
Importance of Seeing the Whole Child Compare and Contrast the Psychological and the Speech and Language Evaluation RTI

Referral Information Background Information Behavioral Observation Test Administered Discussion of Test Results General Intellectual Abilities Academic Achievement Reading Math Writing Language Visual/Perceptual/ Motor Functioning Memory Attention/Executive Functioning Psychological Functioning Summary Diagnosis Recommendations

5 Intelligence Tests Stanford Binet
Woodcock Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) (ages 7-16) WAIS-III and WAIS-IV (16 and older) WPPSI-III (ages 2.6-7)

6 WISC-IV 1. Verbal Comprehension: Similarities, Vocabulary, Comprehension (core) Information, Word Reasoning (supplemental) Verbal Comprehension- describes a hypothesized verbal related ability. Verbal knowledge, understanding obtained through formal and informal education, application of verbal skills to new situations. 2. Perceptual Reasoning: Block Design, Picture Concepts, Matrix Reasoning (core) Picture Completion (supp) Perceptual Reasoning: describes hypothesized performance related ability. It measures the ability to interpret and organize visually perceived material and to generate and test hypothesis related to problem solutions. 3. Working Memory: Digit Span, Letter Number Sequence (core) Arithmetic (Supp) Working Memory describes a hypothesized memory related ability. It measures immediate memory and the ability to sustain attention, concentrate, and exert mental control. 4. Processing Speed: Coding , Symbol Search (core) Cancellation (supp) Processing Speed describes a hypothesized processing speed ability. It measures the ability to process visually perceived nonverbal information quickly, with concentration and rapid eye hand coordination.

7 WISC-IV and CELF-IV: Similarities and Differences
Vocabulary Similarities Comprehension Digit Span Letter Number Sequencing CELF-IV Expressive Vocabulary (5-8) = Word Definitions (9-21) Word Classes- Total Pragmatic Profile Number Repetition Concepts and Following Directions

8 Woodcock Johnson Test Of Cognitive Abilities-III
The Woodcock is based on the theory of Cattell, Horn, and Caroll. Their theory states that there is no generalized intelligence. But rather that intellectual ability is composed of several distinct functions. You can get a generalized IQ score but there is a greater emphasis on speaking about distinct clusters. Criticism of the WISC-IV: The WISC does not fully tap into these different processes (such as long term retrieval, fluid reasoning, auditory processing) Some of the WISC subtests combine one or more processes. The WISC relies too heavily on verbal skills. Not based on a theory 1. VERBAL ABILITY Comprehension Knowledge 2. THINKING ABILITY Long Term Retrieval Visual Spatial Thinking Auditory Processing Fluid Reasoning 3. COGNITIVE EFFICIENCY Processing Speed Short-term memory

9 WJ-III Subtests that are Similar to Speech Tests
Verbal Comprehension: This test includes four orally presented tasks: naming pictured objects, providing synonyms and antonyms, and completing analogies. Verbal Comprehension together with general information subtest makes up the verbal ability factor (Similar to CELF-4, Word Classes; Expressive One Word; CASL, Synonyms & Antonyms). Sound Blending: This task is to synthesize a series of orally presented sounds to form a whole word. /b/a/s/k/e/t/ = basket (part of auditory processing/thinking ability) (Similar to CELF-4; Phonological Awareness). Incomplete Words: provides additional information about auditory processing. The test measures auditory analysis, auditory closure, aspects of phonemic awareness and phonetic coding (a measure of phonemic awareness) (Similar to CELF-4; Phonological Awareness). Auditory Working Memory: measures short term auditory memory span. It can also be classified as a measure of working memory or divided attention. The subject is asked to listen to a series that contains digits and words and then reorder the objects in sequential order then the digits. A measure of working memory (Similar to CELF-4; Familiar Sequences). Numbers Reversed: Repeat orally presented numbers in reverse order (a measure of short term memory/working memory) (Similar to CELF-4; Number Repetition).

10 Educational Evaluations/ Achievement Testing
Educational Evaluations look at reading, math, and writing. Most achievement tests also measure listening comprehension (receptive tests) and oral expression (expressive tests). It looks at each academic skill separately from the other skills. Not timed Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II (WIAT-II) Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement-III (WJ-III) Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement–(KTEA II)

11 WIAT-II and Subtests that Overlap with Speech Tests
For the Listening Comprehension there are 3 sections: 1. Receptive Vocabulary- For this test, the examiner says a word and then the student either points or tells which picture matches the word. 2. Sentence Completion- For this subtest the examiner reads a sentence and the student needs to point to the picture that matches this sentence. 3. Expressive Vocabulary-For this subtest, the examiner shows a picture of an item and gives a brief definition of it, the student needs to give the exact word for it. Oral Expression: there are 4 sections: 1. Sentence Repetition- the student repeats verbatim the sentence the examiner says. 2. Word Fluency- An automatic naming test (i.e., name as many animals as you can think of in 60 seconds). 3. Visual Passage Retell- the student is given a visual/picture and he/she needs to tell a story with a beginning, middle, and end. 4. Giving Directions- the student is asked to tell the examiner the steps needed to complete an action. For example, the steps needed to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich.

12 WJ-III Achievement Test
Goes with WJ-III Cognitive, when using the computer programming will give discrepancy information and compare between the cognitive and the achievement. It assesses decoding, reading comprehension, math, and writing. Untimed Fluency tests so that you can see the impact of time on reading, math, writing performance. Assesses Oral Language and Listening Comprehension.

13 WJ-III and Subtests that Overlap with Speech Tests
Language Related Tasks Story Recall - the student hears a story and then has to repeat back the story as best as he/she can (the stories can get long and complicated). Understanding Directions - The student is asked to point to several items in a picture based on a specific instruction (e.g., either point to the birthday cake or the balloons but first point to the airplane). Picture Vocabulary-Shown a picture and has to name the picture (Examiner asks “What is this”? Student should say “A comb”).

14 KTEA-II Assesses decoding, reading comprehension, math, and writing.
It has tests to assess Oral Expression and Listening Comprehension. In addition the KTEA has reading related subtests such as phonological awareness, nonsense word decoding, word recognition fluency, decoding fluency, associated fluency, and naming facility (RAN). There is error analysis and teacher strategies given based on the student’s deficit. It is easy to move from what is the problem to how to fix it.

15 KTEA-II and Subtests that Overlap with Speech Tests
Listening Comprehension-The student listens to a short story and then has to answer questions based on the story. It is a good test to compare with the reading comprehension subtest because the test is the same. The only difference is for this one you read it and for the reading comprehension test the student reads it. Can see the affect of decoding. Oral Expression-The student is shown a picture and a directive .The student then needs to express the answer based on the directive and the picture. For ex. A picture with a scooter is shown and the examiner asks, “What would you say to the store keeper to get him to show it to you?”

16 Two Other Interesting Tests: WRAML-II and Conners’
Visual Memory (design memory, picture memory) Verbal Memory (story memory, verbal learning, story memory delay, verbal learning delay) Attention and Concentration (finger windows, number letter) Tests recall vs. recognition memory If you find difficulties with verbal memory may be helpful to have psychologist give this test to better understand the student’s memory CONNERS Often used to measure attention Teacher and parent and adolescent forms Short and Long Form School Psychologist won’t make a diagnosis but if elevated will recommend going to the doctor

17 Actual Cases Looking at the Speech Evaluation what would you predict the Psychological Evaluation would look like? Looking at the Psychological Evaluation what would you predict the Speech Evaluation would look like? What subtests will you compare? Are there similarities or differences across tests?

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