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Presentation on theme: "ROOFS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Functional requirements
ROOF GENERAL FUNCTION: To give a protective covering to the building, so rain, wind or snow may not damage the building Functional requirements Weather resistance Structural stability Provide good appearance Provide thermal insulation

3 Functional Requirements (cont’d)
Weather Resistance Required to protect a building from the damaging effects of rain & wind The ingress of rain: causes damage to decorations & structural damage to timber due to attacks by fungus & insects The roof is covered by a layer of impermeable material which prevents the passage of rain into a building The deflection of building may be cause of wind: accurance of suction on the windward of slope of roof

4 Functional Requirements (cont’d)
Structural Stability Provide a means of support for the roof covering In designing a roof structure, the designer must take into consideration the span of structural members If span at joist too great – bend To overcome : introducing a structural element which reduces the span

5 Functional Requirements (cont’d)
Provide Good Appearance Might be a major visual element in the design of a building The detailing of roof can significantly affect the appearance of a building

6 Functional Requirements (cont’d)
Provide Thermal Insulation The roof constitutes a substantial proportion of the external surface area of a building & consequently has considerable potential for heat loss Pitched roofs are usually insulated between the ceiling joists Alternative insulation might be applied between rafters Flat roof insulation is usually laid above the decking, either below or above the roof covering

7 General types of roofs: Sloping Flats Shell Domes

Sloping roof may be categorized into: Medium to high slope – 4:12 to 12:12 Low slope - up to 3:12 Sloping roofs shed water easily to eave gutters Roof height & area increase with its horizontal dimension

9 SLOPING ROOF (cont’d) Sloping roofs may have a structure of:
Rafters & sheathing Beams, purlins & decking Trusses

Medium & high slope roofs may be covered with shingles, tiles or sheet materials Low slope roofs require roll or continuous membrane roofing; some shingle & sheet materials may be used on 3:12 pitches The roof slope also affects the design loads & the requirements for underlayment & eave flashing Slope roof planes may be combined to form a variety of roof forms

11 FLAT ROOFS Pitch from 0 to 10 degree
Slope may be achieved by sloping the structural members or by tapering the deck or rigid insulation Slope usually leads to interior drains; perimeter scuppers can be used as overflow drains

12 FLAT ROOFS (cont’d) Roof structure may consist of:- Joist & sheathing
Beams & decking Flat trusses Concrete slabs Flat roofs require continuous membrane roofing Deck

13 Shell Roof A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness which is small compared to its other dimensions and in which deformations are not large compared to thickness These elements are typically curved and are assembled to large structures. Example: factories and roof structures in some buildings. Advantage in construction : a lot of material is saved as the section needed is very thin.

14 Domes A roof of semi-spherical or semi elliptical shape
Constructed of stone or brick or concrete, & supported on circular or regular polygon shaped walls The structure is such that within certain height & diameter ratios, very small thickness is needed

15 Common Term Used Term Description Ridge piece
A member which runs horizontally at the highest level of the roof Hip External angle of a sloping roof at which the roof slopes are turned down Common rafter Members supporting the battens or boardings under the roof covering Hip rafter Members which form the hip of the roof & to which the common rafters are attached Ridge

16 Common Term Used (cont’d)
Ridge Apex line of a sloping roof Eaves The lower edges of the sloping surface of a roof Eave-board Wooden board fixed along the eaves connecting the common rafters Gable Wall which follows the slope of the roof from eave to ridge & covers the end of a roof Barge board Wooden planks used to fix the ends of common rafters projecting beyond the sloping top of a gable wall

17 Common Term Used (cont’d)
Valley A depression formed at the intersection of two sloping roofs at their junction Jack rafter Short lengths of rafters fixed at the hip rafters & eaves board Valley rafter Member at the intersection of 2 inverted slopes to which rafters are fixed Dragon beam Short member of wood which carries the foot of a hip rafter which is attached to the tie fixed across the angle formed by the intersection of 2 wall plates at the corner of a building Purlins Members that laid horizontally to support the common rafters. They transmit the loads to the trusses or walls

18 Common Term Used (cont’d)
Purlin cleat Short piece of timber bolted to the rafters of roof truss for fixing the purlins Truss A framework of triangles

19 ROOF COVERINGS Is a materials which gives a protective surface to the roofing structure The function is only to prevent ingress or egress of heat & moisture into the building Various types of coverings depending on The character of the building The type of the roofing structure Local conditions, cost, etc.

20 Types of Roof Coverings
Tiles Thatch Wood Shingles Tiles Slates Asphalt Asbestos cement sheets Corrugated iron sheets Bituminous felt Glass Sheet metal roof coverings (copper, zink, etc.) Thatch Asbestos Wood

Roof structure must be designed to carry: Dead loads – roof structure, deck, insulation, roofing & any equipment located on top of or suspended from roof Live loads – accumulated rain, snow & ice & traffic if any. Wind loads – pressure or suction from wind Type of roofing required against: Surface water from the outside Water vapor diffusion from the inside Moist air flow Heat flow & solar radiation

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