Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Attitudes and Attitude Change

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Attitudes and Attitude Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 Attitudes and Attitude Change
Social Psychology Attitudes and Attitude Change

2 Attitudes Enduring orientations with cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. Cognitive Affective Behavioral A favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings or intended behavior

3 Attitude Development External Stimuli The Target Intervening Processes
The Response

4 Intervening Process: Learning
Attitudes as Habits – Carl Hovland (1953) Processes Association Reinforcement Imitation

5 Association Message Learning Transfer of Affect Weak relationships
Motivation Transfer of Affect Associations between two objects

6 Reinforcement Rewarded for attitudes that fit with values of group, society, culture May initially change behavior Then accept the underlying value

7 Reinforcement: Incentive Theory
Adopt attitude that maximizes gains Consider importance and value Cognitive response theory Respond to proposition with thoughts = attitude Expectancy value theory Consider likelihood & value

8 Imitation Model our behaviors (and related attitudes) after others
Aronson & O’Leary Water conservation Cialdini Littering

9 Intervening Process: Cognitive Consistency
Gestalt influence: Seek coherence Attitudes must be interpreted in context Balance theory (Heider, 1958) Cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957)

10 Balance Theory P O X Key Triads can be: + or - + or - + or -
P = Person (self) O = Other X = Attitude Object (issue, person, etc.) Unit or Sentiment Relations + sign = Link/Like - sign = No Link/Dislike Triads can be: Balanced = signs multiply to positive (+) Unbalanced = signs multiply to negative (-) + or - P O + or - + or - X

11 Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger)
Cognitions can have 3 relations Irrelevant Consonant Dissonant

12 Dissonance Dissonance = A feeling of discomfort that is caused by holding 2 or more inconsistent cognitions Dissonance = # and importance

13 How do you get rid of it? How do you restore a sense of consistency?
Change your behavior To be consistent To compensate Change your cognitions Add consonant cognitions (mis-remember things, rationalize your behavior) Alter importance of cognitions

14 Participants are asked to engage in a very boring task
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: Study Example (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959): Insufficient Justification Participants are asked to engage in a very boring task After that, they either: Were told the study was over Were paid $1 to lie to another participant about the task Were paid $20 to lie to another participant about the task Then, participants’ (real) attitudes about the task were measured

15 Applications Therapy Cults Daily situations
Festinger – “When Prophecy Fails” Daily situations

16 Self Perception Theory
Bem (1972) Rational cognitive process Behaviorist Infer attitudes for others Zanna & Cooper (1974)

17 Consistency: Reactions to Discrepancy
Modes of resolution Derogating the source Distorting the message Blanket Rejection

18 Elaboration Likelihood Model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
Two routes Central Based on thoughtful consideration of facts Peripheral Based on thoughtless affective evaluations Leads to acceptance of weak messages Route depends on motivation & opportunity

19 Controlling Cognitive Responses
Counterarguing Active processing Implicit or explicit Verbal or nonverbal Depends on quantity and quality

20 ELM: Communicator Credibility Expert Trustworthy Reciprocity Reference

21 ELM: Communication Discrepancy Motive arousal Anger Fear

22 ELM: Target Ego involvement Defense – McGuire Commitment
Issue involvement Response involvement Defense – McGuire Supportive Inoculation

23 ELM: Situation Forewarning of position Forewarning of intent

24 Cults Changed norms Gradual Powerful leader Unquestioned authority

25 Applications War Token economies Presentations Office politics

Download ppt "Attitudes and Attitude Change"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google