Presentation on theme: "Welcome to our show about phytochemicals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Welcome to our show about phytochemicals Welcome to our show about phytochemicals. This show, by Food and Health Communications, Inc., will emphasize the importance of eating the right foods and has good news about food.This show is not meant to be a substitute for medical treatment. Always follow your physician’s advice.PLEASE NOTE: The pictures and art in this show are copyright Food and Health Communications, Inc. All rights reserved.
2 Lettuce Teach You What Are Phytochemicals? Some Phytochemicals and Their BenefitsHoneydew You Know the Answer?Eat More Phytos!Here are the subjects we are going to cover in this show. Take care, the “honeydew you know the answer?” section is a quiz!!
3 What Are Phytochemicals? Here is a picture of food sources of catechins. These flavonoids are found in red wine, tea, chocolate and red grapes. Flavonoids refers to a wide class of phytochemicals found in many plant foods, including green tea.
4 Say What? Phytochemicals f ī ' tō - kĕm´ĭ – kƏls Syllabication: phy•to•chem•i•cals fi•toe•chemicalsHere is the pronunciation for the word, “phytochemicals.”Phytochemicals f ī ' tō - kĕm´ĭ – kƏlsSyllabication: phy•to•chem•i•cals fi•toe•chemicals
5 What Are Phytochemicals? Substances found in plant foods that contain protective compounds that may help prevent diseases“Phyto” comes from the Greek word meaning plantPhytochemicals are plant chemicalsPhyto means plant and chemical means compounds – phytochemicals are really just compounds found in plants. They are in all plants, but in this show, and many scientific journals, the word specifically refers to plants that are food sources.Phytochemicals are plant chemicals – they do not come from animals
6 What Are Phytochemicals? More than 900 have been identifiedMany more are being discoveredMore than 100 in one serving of vegetablesSource: Polk, Melanie “Feast on Phytochemicals.” AICR newsletter. Issue 51Unlike vitamins more phytochemicals and the interactions they have together and with other nutrients are likely to be discovered.
7 How Do They Work? Phytochemicals are not… like vitamins or minerals, so there is no RDA for themcalories, so they don’t provide energyThey have subtle, drug-like effects that can influence your body’s chemistryRDA = recommended daily allowance
8 What Can They Do? Some may help inhibit the growth of certain cancers Others may prevent plaque buildup in artery wallsSome act as antioxidantsThe research on phytochemicals is preliminary – there are some exciting findings. We use the word, “may” because phytochemicals are just part of the picture for a healthful diet and lifestyle. Besides eating them, you need to follow a healthful diet, get enough exercise and practice healthful lifestyle steps such as getting enough sleep, avoiding tobacco and using alcohol in moderation, if at all.You should get your phytochemicals from natural foods, not supplements. This is because there is not evidence promoting the use of supplements at this time. Furthermore, the supplements themselves are not regulated, and you may not be getting what the bottle says is inside. AND using supplements is not the same as getting the foods. There are many compounds not yet studied or discovered and many of the ones found in foods work together synergistically. Bottom line: you have to follow a healthful diet!How to get enough: It’s simple – eat 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables each day.
9 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Here we will tell you about some of the most common phytochemicals along with where they come from and what they may do for your health.Pictured here is the zest of citrus fruits which contains monoterpenes – found in essential oils of many plants including lemons, oranges, grapefruit, caraway, dill, bergamot, peppermint, spearmint, grasses and tomatoes. Cancer prevention, inhibition and regression are the most noteworthy attributes.
10 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Allyl (A-Lill) sulfides –Alliums: Garlic, onions, leeks, chives and scallionsMay help prevent:Certain cancersHigh blood pressureBlood clottingThe onion family is beneficial for your health. Allyl sulfides are the stuff in onions that make your eyes water! They have been shown to inhibit tumors in animals. And other studies have shown that people who eat a lot of garlic and onions reduce their risk of stomach and colon cancer. The more pungent the Allium food, the higher its content of allyl sulfides.FMI see:
11 Here are some “alliums” – see if you can guess all of their names: From left going to the right: White onion, vidalia onion, shallot, leek, garlic. red onion, yellow onion, scallions.
12 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Capsaicin (Cap-sa-sin) –Hot peppersBenefits:Digestive aidPotential cancer-fighting compoundTopical pain killerCapsaicin is also used for defense in pepper sprays, such as Mace. Capsaicin is antibacterial, so it may actually help prevent ulcers. It helps with digestion and has been shown to have cancer-fighting properties. It is used in many topical pain relief medicines, including ones for arthritis.
13 Jalapenos are shown here Jalapenos are shown here. Handle these with care – the seeds and oils are hot and if you touch your face or eyes after handling them, you may be in for a hot surprise!
14 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Carotenoids (Car-ot-en-oyds): alpha, beta, gamma, deltaOrange and dark green leafy vegetables:CarrotsSweet potatoesWinter squash, pumpkinSpinach, romaine (orange color is masked by chlorophyll)Orange fruits:ApricotsMangoCantaloupeBenefits:May help prevent cancerPotent antioxidantsProvitamin A activityCarotenoids are a class of fat-soluble pigments found in plants, where they play a critical role in the photosynthetic process. Carotenoids are responsible for many of the red, orange, and yellow colors and hues of plant leaves, fruits and flowers.Vitamin A can be produced within the body from beta-carotene as well as some other carotenoids.Antioxidants inhibit oxidation, a normal metabolic process that can cause accelerated aging, cancer, cardiovascular disease and arthritis.FMI:
15 Pictures of foods with beta-carotene – from left to right: Romaine lettuce, red yam/orange sweet potato, carrots, broccoli, winter squash, apricot halves, spinach, bell pepper.
16 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Lycopene (Like-o-peen) –Tomatoes and watermelonMay help prevent:Prostate cancerHeart disease (blood clotting)Lycopene is a carotenoid and is responsible for the red color in these foods. Did you know that tomatoes contain as many as 10,000 phytochemicals? Source:
17 Here is a photo of foods that are good sources of lycopene. Speaker: Explain that the lycopene in tomatoes is more available when there is a little bit of oil present.Left to right: watermelon, pink grapefruit, tomatoes.
18 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Lutein (Loo-teen) –Leafy green vegetables: spinach, kale, turnip greens, romaine, collard greensMay help prevent:Macular degenerationCancerHeart diseaseLutein is also a carotenoid and may help protect your eyesight.
19 Lutein and other carotenoids are found in leafy green vegetables Lutein and other carotenoids are found in leafy green vegetables. Pictured here is a mesclun green salad – or spring mix. The darker the lettuce, the more nutrients it contains.
20 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Ellagic (Ee-laj-ick) acidGrapes, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, raspberries, nutsMay help prevent:CancerEllagic acid acts as a natural pesticide in many plants. It is a phenolic compound. Other phenolic compounds are found in citronella, vanilla and eucalyptus oil.
21 Pictures of foods with ellagic acid: walnuts, pomegranates, strawberries and blueberries
22 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Isoflavones (Ice-o-flave-ones) –Soybeans, soy proteinMay help prevent:High cholesterol, heart diseaseCancerIsoflavones are found in soy foods. They are the highest in the beans themselves and also in foods made from them including tofu, tempeh, soy milk, veggie burgers made from soy protein, TVP and soy flour. Manufacturers of these foods claim they can help with menopausal symptoms as well as bone mineral density, but more needs to be studied on these topics.Right now the FDA allows a claim for soy foods that contain 6 grams of soy protein or more – foods with 6.25 grams of protein or more may help lower cholesterol when part of a heart-healthy diet. There are quite a few claims with soy, but its proven benefit is in prevention of high cholesterol and heart disease. There is some evidence that phytoestrogens may help inhibit the growth of cancers. More research is needed.
23 Here are examples of soy foods. As always, you should read the Nutrition Facts labels. Not all of them are low in sodium.Silken tofu, pictured in the middle, is useful for desserts, lasagna, smoothies and stir-fry dishes. Soy milk is a delicious alternative to milk – make sure you find one that is fortified with calcium. Look to the right – you will see soy nuts – these are nutritious and make good snacks. They are lower in fat than regular peanuts.
24 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Quercetin (Kwer-si-tin) –Onions, kale, broccoli, red grapes, cherries, apples, cereals, tea, red wineMay help prevent:CancerHeart diseaseAllergies – works like antihistamineInformation on quercetin was one of the most visited pages on the Berkeley Wellness Web site.Here is what the UC Berkeley Wellness Letter, January 2003 says:“We do think you should get as much quercetin as you can – from foods. Apples, onions, raspberries, black and green tea, red wine, red grapes, citrus fruit, cherries, broccoli, and leafy greens are the way to go. And they offer lots more than just quercetin.”FMI:– encyclopedia of supplements from BWL.
25 Quercetin is found in tea, apples, onions and red wine.
26 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Resveratrol (Res-vare-e-trol) –Red grapes and juice, red wine, peanutsMay help prevent:Heart disease (blood clotting)CancerResearchers believe that resveratrol is partially responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of red wine.
27 Here are foods that contain resveratrol: peanuts, red grapes and red wine.
28 Some Phytochemicals and Their Benefits Sulforaphane (Sul-for-a-fane) –Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetablesMay help prevent:CancerThe cruciferous family contains many anticancer phytochemicals including sulforaphanes, indoles and isothiocyanates.
29 Cruciferous vegetables include all vegetables that have a cross-shaped flower. To name a few: cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale, watercress, Swiss chard, collards, turnips, rutabagas, beets, radishes. See if you can identify these!
30 Honeydew You Know the Answer? Okay – now it is time for your quiz!!
31 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 1. Fruits and _________ are rich in phytochemicals.Speaker: The answer is on the next slide. See if they can guess!
32 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 1. Fruits and _________ are rich in phytochemicals.Answer: VegetablesThe answer is vegetables.Speaker: Ask them if they know how many servings of vegetables they should get each day according to the Food Guide Pyramid:3 to 5 servings.A serving:1 cup leafy3/4 cup juice1/2 cup cooked or choppedThey should get 2-3 servings of fruits each day:1 medium-sized fruit1/2 cup chopped or canned or small pieces1/4 cup dried fruit
33 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 2. What is a fancy name for a plant chemical?Speaker: The answer is on the next slide. See if they can guess!
34 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 2. What is a fancy name for a plant chemical?Answer: PhytochemicalThis one is easy – it is what we have been studying all along!BONUS – see if you can name any of the phytochemicals you have just studied – or if you can name a few of the fruits and vegetables featured in previous slides.Picture here: The RED group of fruits – remember to eat from the rainbow when it comes to fruits and vegetables.
35 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 3. This popular green vegetable is said to resemble trees by its shape. It contains sulforaphane, a chemical that may help prevent cancer.Speaker: The answer is on the next slide. See if they can guess!
36 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 3. This popular green vegetable is said to resemble trees by its shape. It contains sulforaphane, a chemical that may help prevent cancer.Answer: BroccoliSpeaker: Ask the audience to share how they enjoy eating their broccoli.
37 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 4. These vegetables are really fruits. They are used to make ketchup and contain lycopene, a photochemical that may help prevent prostate cancer.Speaker: The answer is on the next slide. See if they can guess!
38 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 4. These vegetables are really fruits. They are used to make ketchup and contain lycopene, a photochemical that may help prevent prostate cancer.Answer: TomatoesTomatoes are botanically a fruit.Easy tip: Use grape or cherry tomatoes – wash and toss – no fuss no muss and they keep great in the refrigerator – always ready to go into salads!
39 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 5. This berry is named for its color and contains a significant amount of antioxidants.Speaker: The answer is on the next slide. See if they can guess!
40 Honeydew You Know the Answer? 5. This berry is named for its color and contains a significant amount of antioxidants.Answer: BlueberriesResearchers at the USDA Human Nutrition Center (HNRCA) have found that blueberries rank #1 in antioxidant activity when compared to 40 other fresh fruits and vegetables. Antioxidants help neutralize harmful by-products of metabolism called “free radicals” that can lead to cancer and other age-related diseases. Anthocyanin – the pigment that makes the blueberries blue – is thought to be responsible for this major health benefit. Source:
41 Get More Phytos in Your Diet Pictured here: a sweet potato. Sweet potatoes are excellent sources for beta carotene and soluble fiber. It is easy to prepare one in the microwave – make it just like a baked potato!! Top with sugar-free syrup, light margarine and a little cinnamon for a great side dish or snack.This section will show you steps and tips to get more phytochemicals in your diet.
42 Did You Know?The WHO study group on diet, nutrition and prevention of communicable diseases recommends that we consume at least 400 grams (14 ounces) of fruits and vegetables dailyThe 5-A-Day program recommends 5 to 9 servings each dayDiet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases; Geneva A report of the World Health Organization (WHO) study on diet, nutrition and prevention of noncommunicable diseases.According to the USDA Food Guide Pyramid, it is recommended that adults consume between 5 and 9 servings a day of fruits and vegetables. Since very few Americans achieve that level of consumption, many could surely benefit from a substantial increase in their use of fruits and vegetables.
43 Eat More Phytos! 1. Plan your meals around plant-based foods. Pictured here is a stir-fry with spinach, fresh vegetables and a little chicken. It is served with steamed brown rice.The next time you are in the store, visit the produce aisle first. Seasonal produce should be the inspiration for your meals!!
44 Eat More Phytos! 2. Use beans and soy for your protein often. Beans are excellent sources of soluble fiber and saponins – important phytochemicals that have anticancer properties. The more beans in your diet, the better!! Pictured here is a baked potato with bean chili and fat-free sour cream.
45 Eat More Phytos!3. Eat 2-3 vegetables at both lunch and dinner. Choose vegetables with a lot of color.Think vegetables and think color in your meals! Pictured here is blue potato hash!! It was made from boiled blue potatoes, fresh corn and red peppers – sauté in a little olive oil and season with vinegar and hot pepper.
46 Eat More Phytos!4. Choose fruits for snacks rather than pretzels and other refined snack foods.Fruit is the perfect snack – it comes in its own “wrapper” for taking it on the go. Here we have a fresh peach and raspberries. Simple yet elegant and ready to eat!
47 Eat More Phytos!5. Season your food with garlic, onion, tomatoes, peppers and a small amount of nuts. Use flax, sesame, sunflower and pumpkin seeds for flavor or for snacks.Why not use more plants for seasonings! The sky is the limit!!
48 Eat More Phytos!6. Experiment with a variety of whole grains: amaranth, quinoa, brown rice, etc.Whole grains are made up of the endosperm, the germ and the bran of the grain.Whole-grain foods are valuable sources of nutrients that are lacking in the American diet, including dietary fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, copper, and magnesium. Whole grains also provide important phytochemicals including phenolic compounds.FMI see “The role of whole grains in disease prevention.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, July, 2001, by Joanne L. Slavin, David Jacobs, Len Marquart, Kathy Wiemer.
49 Orange You Glad You Learned? What Are Phytochemicals?Some Phytochemicals and Their BenefitsHoneydew You Know the Answer?Eat More Phytos!Speaker: Allow for questions and review important points from these sections. Summary: Phytochemicals, found only in plant foods, don’t provide you with energy, essential vitamins or minerals – but they have been shown to protect against cancer, heart disease and other illnesses.Thanks for watching our show (quote on next and final page).
50 “To fail is not an option.” – Paul Schaye, finisher, Paris-Brest-Paris bike ride: 783 milesPaul Schaye was 50 years old when he trained for and finished this ultra-endurance bike ride that goes from Paris to Brest and back. It is ridden without stop and the riders only get about 2 hours of sleep a night. It took planning and tenacity. And it took a will to overcome a few obstacles along the way, such as pulled tendons in one hand and stomach problems. We all have that inside of us and can attain whatever we set our minds to. A healthful diet and lifestyle can be yours if you want it!