Presentation on theme: "University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee"— Presentation transcript:
1 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee PERSONALTRAUMAFAMILY’STRAUMAPARENT’STRAUMAANCESTOR’STRAUMAWhat’s in his backpack?Nature and/or Nurture: Trans-generational Transmission of Traumatic StressChris Dunning, Ph.D.Professor EmeritaUniversity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee414/
2 Why examine Trans-generational Transmission of Trauma? Children Bring Their Whole Lives into the ClassroomChildren spend 6-8 hours a day in school.If the school is trauma-informed, those could be hours in which the children feel understood, accepted and validated, all of which might g help them recover from traumaTeachers who function as secondary or alternative attachment figures could provide some protection against negative developmental outcomesEducation can help the children become part of society.
4 Let’s Talk About the Elephant in the Classroom AFFECTATTITUDEBEHAVIORCOGNITIONLEARNING
5 What Do You Have in the Classroom? Personal TraumasFamily’s TraumasParent’s Childhood/Adult TraumasCaregiver/Teacher’s/Staff TraumasAncestor’s TraumasCommunity TraumasNOT EVERY CHILD HAS THE SAME-SIZE ELEPHANT IN THEIR BACKPACK
6 Just Because a Person Has Been in a Traumatic Event… Doesn’t Mean They are TRAUMATIZED!!
10 Key Developmental Capacities Affected By Trauma Ability to modulate, tolerate, or recover from extreme affect statesRegulation of bodily functionsCapacity to know emotions or bodily statesCapacity to describe emotions or bodily statesCapacity to perceive threat, including reading of safety and danger cuesCapacity for self-protectionCapacity for self-soothingAbility to initiate or sustain goal-directed behaviorCoherent self, Identity, sense of self-worth or esteemCapacity to regulate empathic arousalCapacity to trust10
11 Domains Impacted by Trauma That Affect Learning Behavioral ControlCognitionAttachmentDissociationAffect RegulationPhysiological and Psychological StateSelf Concept
12 Trans-generational Trauma Attachment research shows a 75% correspondence between a mother’s attachment and that of her infant RESULTING IN…Repetition of disturbed interactions and patterns of relationshipsRepetition of abuse and maltreatmentIssues for abused parents - anxiety, compensation and reparation, envyRe-enactment of unresolved attachment trauma
13 Transmission of Trauma from Parent to Child “Direct and specific" transmission (a mental syndrome in the survivor parent leads directly to the same specific syndrome in the child)Indirect and general" transmission (a disorder in the parent makes the parent unable to function as a parent which indirectly leads to a general sense of deprivation in the child).
14 Trauma Symptoms that Impact Parenting: PTSD Avoidant D. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred), as evidenced by two or more of the following:1. Inability to remember an important aspect of the traumatic event(s) (typically due to dissociative amnesia that is not due to head injury, alcohol, or drugs)2. Persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (e.g., “I am bad,” “No one can be trusted,” "The world is completely dangerous"). (Alternatively, this might be expressed as, e.g., “I’ve lost my soul forever,” or “My whole nervous system is permanently ruined”). 3. Persistent, distorted blame of self or others about the cause or consequences of the traumatic event(s)4. Persistent negative emotional state (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame)5. Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities6. Feelings of detachment or estrangement from others7. Persistent inability to experience positive emotions (e.g., unable to have loving feelings, psychic numbing)
15 Parent’s PTSD Arousal Symptoms E. Marked alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with the traumatic event(s), beginning or worsening after the traumatic event(s) occurred, as evidenced by two or more of the following:1. irritable or aggressive behavior2. reckless or self-destructive behavior (alcohol, drug, eating, self-harm, high risk, promiscuity…)3. hypervigilance4. exaggerated startle response5. problems with concentration6. sleep disturbance (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless sleep)
16 Empathic damage done to student by parent Sense of Self-esteemSense of SafetyAffect Regulation AbilityFear of AbandonmentFear of RejectionTrust Level QuestionedFear of BetrayalFear of BlameSense of Control10. Loss of Sense of Self In LargerPicture/Context
17 Let’s Look at Traumatized Families: Adaptational Styles (Danieli) General family types are associated with traumatic psychological responses:“Families of fighters,“Children had to adopt a “Fighter/Hero” identity to saty in family and achieve parents’ goals for recognition and redressContempt and intolerance for dependency, weakness, or failureOutside world seen as oppositional so aggressive interaction the normChildren programmed to seek validation for parents’ suffering and to make their parents’ whole
18 Adaptational Family Styles "the Numb family,"Pervasive silence and depletion of all emotionsParents capable of tolerating only minimal amount of stimulationChildren’s inner spontaneity and fantasy life severely limitedParents protect each other and children protect the parentsChildren adapt by numbing themselves or are perpetually angryIn attempt to please parents, try to excel in social standard of achievementsChildren frequently accept outside role models over parents to know how to live
19 Adaptational Family Styles “Those who made it.“ familiesMotivated by magical fantasies during traumaDesire to “make it big”, regain power and control“Victim families”Pervasive depression, fear, worry, and distrust of outside worldSymbiotic clinging within the familyCatastrophic reactions to everyday problems and situationsGuilt used as a form of control
20 Two new categories to add to Danieli's typology– 5. “Life goes on" familiesConspiracy of SilenceAdvocacy for present and future gainsChildren expected to achieve6. “Split families."Ready acceptance of new members (“aunties”, “uncles”, “daddies”, “siblings”…)Fluid membership-transfer between familiesToleration of independence, parentificationCreation of “new families” (eg. affiliation with gangs, cults, groups, social institutions [churches]…Little parental oversight
21 Holocaust Link: Jewish and Native American Fixation to traumaattempts to resolve past1. EffectsNightmaresPerceived obligation to ancestors2. Coping strategiesMemory Candles (Living testaments)Loss cannot be openly mourned1. IndividualInhibited with shame2. SocietyLoss of ancestral traditionLiving in the Past & Present1. 1st GenerationPost Traumatic Stress Disorder2. Subsequent GenerationsHistorical Unresolved Trauma
22 Neurobiology of Trans-generational Transmission of Trauma Caveat: The genetic model of transmission may evoke resistance because of its similarity with the Nazi ideology of purifying the gene pool of the German race, it provides a clear theoretical basis for future research.Parental traumatization may be transmitted in the same manner as some hereditary diseases are passed on from one generation to another.Genetic memory code of a traumatized parent may thus be transmitted to the child through some electro-chemical processes in the brain.
23 Genetic transmissionThe neural organization of various memory systems in the parent (e.g. hyperalertness) would lead to a similar organization and constitution in the child.Since psychic trauma is assumed to have long-term effects on the neurochemical responses to stress in traumatized parents it may also lead to the same enduring characterological deficiencies and to a kind of biological vulnerability in the child.
24 Gene Environment Interaction New research helps answer the puzzling question of why post-traumatic stress doesn't happen to everyone who endures horrible trauma.Researchers found that survivors of child abuse were particularly likely to have symptoms of post-traumatic stress as adults if they also had specific variations in a stress-related gene.
25 We are concerned with the gene for stress hormone systems Norepinephrine – “revving up” hormoneCortisol – “quieting down” hormoneBoth hormones are released in response to stress. They are normally in balance.
26 Stress ResponseDesigned to help mobilize ourselves to cope with danger by responding in one or more of the following behaviors:Withdrawal –FLIGHTImmobility-FREEZINGAggression-FIGHTAppeasement-SUBMISSIONTypically, our first reaction to danger is to freeze, to stop all movement.
27 A Threat Occurs: Human Stress Response Fight/flee/freeze State of high alert, hypervigilance Action, not thought Decreased ability to think clearly or completely Extremist thinking Attention to threat – tagged for mental priority Increased aggression – loss of impulse control Dissociation buffers CNS but fragments mental functioning Speechless terror – loss of words Action is successful or not=helplessness
28 The Culprit-FKBP5The FKBP5 gene is active in the biochemical make-up of the body's stress-response system.Early-life abuse can result in particularly potent changes to this system as it develops — depending partly on whether or not the variations are present in the gene.The combination of the gene variations and past child abuse were the key ingredients for the doubled PTSD symptoms when a subsequent trauma occurredThis finding suggests a gene/childhood environment interaction for adult PTSD.Inherited variations in multiple genes, which have yet to be identified, are estimated to account for 30 to 40 percent of the risk of developing PTSD.
29 Research on Ancestral PTSD Found that low cortisol levels were significantly associated with both PTSD in parents and lifetime PTSD in offspring, whereas having a current psychiatric diagnosis other than PTSD was relatively, but non-significantly, associated with higher cortisol levels.“Ancestral PTSD, a putative risk factor for PTSD, appears to be associated with low cortisol level in offspring, even in the absence of lifetime PTSD in the offspring. The findings suggest that low cortisol levels in PTSD may constitute a vulnerability marker related to parental PTSD as well as a state-related characteristic associated with acute or chronic PTSD symptoms”
30 PHYSIOLOGIC DIFFERENCE Depression, Stress, or Trauma CRFGlucoCorticoidReceptorsHYPOTHALMUSPITUATARYADRENAL GlucoReceptorsStressCortisolTrauma
31 Research Findings-FKBP5 Research examines polymorphisms (variants of a gene among a population) of a gene called FKBP5.Protein in this gene encodes is involved in mediating the actions of the glucocorticoid receptor, which upon activation moves into the nucleus of the cell and regulates gene expression.Researchers discovered polymorphisms of FKBP5 were correlated with increased rates of PTSD in adults who experienced traumatic stress, but only in subjects who had experienced trauma previously or who had inherited the morphism of their FKBP5 gene.
32 FKBP5 GeneOn its own FKBP5 polymporphism was not correlated with adult PTSD-Mutation only happens in early childhood under traumatic circumstances.FOR EXAMPLENormal FKBP5 parent traumatized while serving in Iraq=no mutationParent abused repeatedly in first 5 years of life= possibility of FKPB5 mutation which could then be passed onChild inherits mutated FKBP5 gene and never experiences a trauma=no PTSD (may have some symptoms)Child inherits mutated FKBP5 gene and experiences a trauma=substantially greater possibility of PTSD if no buffering factors
33 FKBP5 and HPA axisIdentified genes were generally involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, signal transduction, or brain and immune cell function.FKBP5, a modulator of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity, showed reduced expression in PTSD, consistent with enhanced GR responsiveness.FKBP5 expression was predicted by cortisol when entered with PTSD severity in regression
35 What does this biological state do to the student’s body? CRHACTHcortisolShort-term effect of cortisolGlucose release from liver and musclesLong-term effectsImmune changesLoss of muscle and bone massLoss of insulin sensitivityHippocampus neuronal death
36 STRESS Targets for Cortisol Acute - enhances immune, Memory, energy replenishment,Cardiovascular functionChronic suppresses immune,impairs memory and attention via effects on hippocampus and PFC;Heightens fear via altering amygdala;Promotes bone & mineralloss; induces metabolicsyndromeStress induced cortisol release causes declarative memory impairment
37 Hippocampal Volume Reduction in PTSD NORMAL PTSDMRI scan of the hippocampus in a normal control and patient with PTSD secondary to childhood abuse. The hippocampus, outlined in blue, is visibly smaller in PTSD. Overall there was a 12% reduction in volume in PTSD.Bremner et al., Am. J. Psychiatry 1995; 152: ; Bremner et al., Biol. Psychiatry 1997; 41:23-32;
38 Effects of Increased Cortisol Effect on Child’s Brain:Loss of neurons- pruningDecreased myelination- as neurons are fired, they strengthen the myelin by using proteins, hence the brain is strongerDecreased neurogenesis- growth of new brain cells
39 STAT5BAlso less expressed in PTSD were STAT5B, a direct inhibitor of GR (glucocorticoid receptor), and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II.The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a set of molecules displayed on cell surfaces that are responsible for lymphocyte recognition and "antigen presentation". The MHC molecules control the immune response through recognition of "self" and "non-self"
40 Early Stress and Stress Reactivity: Gene Environment Interaction• Disrupt pre-programmed, gene transcription related tostress reactivity during critical developmental period– Disrupts developmental stress circuit integration– Permanent behavioral and neurobiologic changes• Gene variants can make individual more susceptible toimpact of trauma– Polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase A and alcoholism– Polymorphisms of serotonin transporter and depression– Increased risk for psychiatric disorderCaspi et al., 2003; Ducci et al., 2008
41 Implications for Educators Safe, successful learning must maintain stress hormone levels low enough to keep the hippocampus functioning.That's why it's so crucial for both student and teacher to know how to "apply the brakes" in class - to keep the hippocampus in commission and return it to action as promptly as possible when the system goes on overload.
42 The last thing we want to happen is that we as educators add to that backpack! QUESTIONS?