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The Great War & Russian Revolution

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1 The Great War & Russian Revolution
World History Test Review Mr. Terrell’s World History

2 Topics Overview Be able to identify the four M.A.I.N. longterm causes for the outbreak of war Be able to EXPLAIN how each of these led to war Know the immediate cause for war Describe the diplomacy that went on between the assassination and the declarations of war Identify the two alliance systems Describe U.S. American outlook on the war & explain US entrance into the conflict in 1917 Describe how the Western Front was established and how battles were fought Explain how new war technologies created a devastating casualty and death count Explain the political influence U.S. American ideology had on the peace accord in 1919 & where this ideology came from League of Nations, National Self-determination, Lasting Peace Explain the downfall and overthrow of the Czarist Autocracy in Russia Russian Revolutions in February & October 1917 led to a new State, the Soviet Union Characterize the impact of the change of regime Analyze the effectiveness of the Versailles Treaty with ending the War

3 Causes of the Great War MAIN Long term causes
Militarism- an arms race of sorts where states built up large armed forces Alliance systems- support structures where certain states would agree to support in war another state Imperialism- division of land in Africa and Asia Nationalism- sense of pride where one group or nation believes they are superior to another Immediate Cause: Assassination of Austria-Hungary’s Archduke FRANZ FERDINAND by Serbian Black Hand Terrorist Notice the long term causes are all competition-based on a state level, explain how these lead to conflict

4 Diplomacy fails Several state leaders were relatives, such as Nicholas and Wilhelm of Russia and Germany respectively. War was not declared the day after Ferdinand’s assassination, why not? Austria-Hungary could not fight its own war, had to depend on war alliance with Germany and thus checked to ensure Germany would honor its pledge first Ultimatum sent intended to force Serbia to go to war with Austria- Hungary, unreasonable demands France and Russia declare war after Austria and Germany Triple Entente (France, Russia, Great Britain) but what prompts Britain to finally join the war? Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)

5 Schlieffen Plan Plan devised between 1905 and 1907 anticipating a two-front war for Germany Idea was to rapidly move into France going around their defensive barrier at the border between Germany and France and force the government in Paris to surrender France. Thus, the Germans would only have to fight in the east against Russia. Progress was slow through the independent country of Belgium, and Britain joins the war and quickly militarizes to help French army halt the German Army Where German forces end up facing the French & British joint forces becomes known as the Western Front People begin digging trenches for cover Battles will be localized along these trenches However, trench warfare is difficult as neither side can easily take over the other

6 Trench warfare Armies would rise out of the trenches and assault the other trench in columns or lines Easy targets for enemy forces defending opposing trench Assaulting forces had to cross “No-man’s Land” between the trenches filled with mines, targeted artillery, and barbed wire making assaulting forces all the more easily slaughtered New war technologies made this antiquated tactic of attacking in columns and lines useless. Machine Guns, Flamethrowers, Airplanes, Poison Gas grenades all very effective against a line of enemy troops Submarines, especially German U-Boats would also transform naval combat

7 Wilson’s Ideology Wilson was an anti-imperialist idealist president of the United States Won election in 1912 promising to keep the US out of a potential European conflict while spouting other progressive ideas Won 1916 election by showing that he had kept the US out of the war thus far However, Americans were always more aware that they were being attacked by German U-Boats who were operating without restriction in international waters targeting shipping to France and Britain Wilson believed international peace was possible so he wrote his so-called “Fourteen Points” Plan to create a Lasting Peace for all time Called for a council of government leaders that would be known as the League of Nations where leaders and representatives could discuss problems to avoid war Introduced the term of “National Self-Determination” which condemned colonial empires who disallowed small countries from gaining independence

8 U.S. Entrance into the War
It can be argued whether America won the war, or simply ensured victory for the allies On the one hand, United States became a glorified gun dealer as it supplied arms to Britain and France from the start of the war in 1914 while remaining neutral and out of the war itself. However, Germany didn’t see this as neutral and attacked allied shipping to France and Britain eventually sinking a cruise liner supposedly carrying not only passengers, but also arms. The Lusitania’s sinking created a sentiment in America to declare war on Germany. Furthermore, Germany sent a telegram to Mexico offering rewards for Mexico if they would invade the United States. This Zimmerman Telegram only added to the anger against the Germans in the United States. U.S. enters war in 1917 and would be involved in few battles

9 Fall of Czarist Russia Between Revolutions in February and October 1917, Russia was fundamentally transformed from an Autocratic Regime to the Soviet Union where communism and socialism would dictate the aim of the empire from 1917 to 1991. Up to 1917, Russian Czars were autocratic dictators over a feudal system. In WWI from 1914 to 1917, peasants were armed and fought for Russia as largely untrained military forces. Thus, millions died. Peasants also bore the financial taxes for maintaining a wartime economy in Russia. Peasants were censored from reading western thought and were largely kept from education. When peasants tried to create national groups, the were put down. Jewish populations in Russia were always under attack and persecution from the Czars. So, During WWI, Russian peasants revolted in a civil war and toppled the last Czar

10 How the Russian Revolution Worked
A group of communists, known as the Bolsheviks, rallied the peasants under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin in 1917. The Bolsheviks promised peasants they would redistribute land once they toppled the Czarist regime. Again, the civil war became a revolution which replaced the Czar because peasants were tired of censors, oppression, and the involvement in WWI After the Bolsheviks took over in October 1917, Russia made peace with Germany and withdrew from WWI. The Soviet Union or USSR would be formed and lasted until 1991 through the Cold War Era.

11 1919 Versailles Treaty US President Wilson’s Fourteen Points became the backbone of the peace treaty Fighting ceased in 1918, but peace was not signed until Versailles in 1919 League of Nations was created, but the US would not join it because Wilson lost support from within the American Senate due to poor people skills and politics in the United States Thus, Wilson was shown to be a less than powerful figure allowing France and Britain to largely control the peace accord and war reparations or repayments from Germany.

12 End of WWI continued Fundamental ideas of Wilson such as a lasting peace were written into the peace accord But, anti-imperial changes were only applied to Germany and its allies. Thus, Germany and Austria were torn apart and their once large European Empires were redrawn on the map forming several new states. Germany was torn apart into states that were given to Poland, Russia, and France. Austria-Hungary as an empire turned into the state of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Germany’s colonies in Africa and in the Pacific became “mandates” administered by the League of Nations under the Mandatory System which redrew the map of Africa again. Essentially, the Treaty of Versailles would geographically redraw the maps of Europe and Africa

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