Presentation on theme: "The Great War & Russian Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Great War & Russian Revolution World History Test ReviewMr. Terrell’s World History
2 Topics OverviewBe able to identify the four M.A.I.N. longterm causes for the outbreak of warBe able to EXPLAIN how each of these led to warKnow the immediate cause for warDescribe the diplomacy that went on between the assassination and the declarations of warIdentify the two alliance systemsDescribe U.S. American outlook on the war & explain US entrance into the conflict in 1917Describe how the Western Front was established and how battles were foughtExplain how new war technologies created a devastating casualty and death countExplain the political influence U.S. American ideology had on the peace accord in 1919 & where this ideology came fromLeague of Nations, National Self-determination, Lasting PeaceExplain the downfall and overthrow of the Czarist Autocracy in RussiaRussian Revolutions in February & October 1917 led to a new State, the Soviet UnionCharacterize the impact of the change of regimeAnalyze the effectiveness of the Versailles Treaty with ending the War
3 Causes of the Great War MAIN Long term causes Militarism- an arms race of sorts where states built up large armed forcesAlliance systems- support structures where certain states would agree to support in war another stateImperialism- division of land in Africa and AsiaNationalism- sense of pride where one group or nation believes they are superior to anotherImmediate Cause: Assassination of Austria-Hungary’s Archduke FRANZ FERDINAND by Serbian Black Hand TerroristNotice the long term causes are all competition-based on a state level, explain how these lead to conflict
4 Diplomacy failsSeveral state leaders were relatives, such as Nicholas and Wilhelm of Russia and Germany respectively.War was not declared the day after Ferdinand’s assassination, why not?Austria-Hungary could not fight its own war, had to depend on war alliance with Germany and thus checked to ensure Germany would honor its pledge firstUltimatum sent intended to force Serbia to go to war with Austria- Hungary, unreasonable demandsFrance and Russia declare war after Austria and GermanyTriple Entente (France, Russia, Great Britain) but what prompts Britain to finally join the war?Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy)
5 Schlieffen PlanPlan devised between 1905 and 1907 anticipating a two-front war for GermanyIdea was to rapidly move into France going around their defensive barrier at the border between Germany and France and force the government in Paris to surrender France. Thus, the Germans would only have to fight in the east against Russia.Progress was slow through the independent country of Belgium, and Britain joins the war and quickly militarizes to help French army halt the German ArmyWhere German forces end up facing the French & British joint forces becomes known as the Western FrontPeople begin digging trenches for coverBattles will be localized along these trenchesHowever, trench warfare is difficult as neither side can easily take over the other
6 Trench warfareArmies would rise out of the trenches and assault the other trench in columns or linesEasy targets for enemy forces defending opposing trenchAssaulting forces had to cross “No-man’s Land” between the trenches filled with mines, targeted artillery, and barbed wire making assaulting forces all the more easily slaughteredNew war technologies made this antiquated tactic of attacking in columns and lines useless.Machine Guns, Flamethrowers, Airplanes, Poison Gas grenades all very effective against a line of enemy troopsSubmarines, especially German U-Boats would also transform naval combat
7 Wilson’s IdeologyWilson was an anti-imperialist idealist president of the United StatesWon election in 1912 promising to keep the US out of a potential European conflict while spouting other progressive ideasWon 1916 election by showing that he had kept the US out of the war thus farHowever, Americans were always more aware that they were being attacked by German U-Boats who were operating without restriction in international waters targeting shipping to France and BritainWilson believed international peace was possible so he wrote his so-called “Fourteen Points”Plan to create a Lasting Peace for all timeCalled for a council of government leaders that would be known as the League of Nations where leaders and representatives could discuss problems to avoid warIntroduced the term of “National Self-Determination” which condemned colonial empires who disallowed small countries from gaining independence
8 U.S. Entrance into the War It can be argued whether America won the war, or simply ensured victory for the alliesOn the one hand, United States became a glorified gun dealer as it supplied arms to Britain and France from the start of the war in 1914 while remaining neutral and out of the war itself.However, Germany didn’t see this as neutral and attacked allied shipping to France and Britain eventually sinking a cruise liner supposedly carrying not only passengers, but also arms. The Lusitania’s sinking created a sentiment in America to declare war on Germany.Furthermore, Germany sent a telegram to Mexico offering rewards for Mexico if they would invade the United States. This Zimmerman Telegram only added to the anger against the Germans in the United States.U.S. enters war in 1917 and would be involved in few battles
9 Fall of Czarist RussiaBetween Revolutions in February and October 1917, Russia was fundamentally transformed from an Autocratic Regime to the Soviet Union where communism and socialism would dictate the aim of the empire from 1917 to 1991.Up to 1917, Russian Czars were autocratic dictators over a feudal system.In WWI from 1914 to 1917, peasants were armed and fought for Russia as largely untrained military forces. Thus, millions died. Peasants also bore the financial taxes for maintaining a wartime economy in Russia.Peasants were censored from reading western thought and were largely kept from education.When peasants tried to create national groups, the were put down.Jewish populations in Russia were always under attack and persecution from the Czars.So, During WWI, Russian peasants revolted in a civil war and toppled the last Czar
10 How the Russian Revolution Worked A group of communists, known as the Bolsheviks, rallied the peasants under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin in 1917.The Bolsheviks promised peasants they would redistribute land once they toppled the Czarist regime.Again, the civil war became a revolution which replaced the Czar because peasants were tired of censors, oppression, and the involvement in WWIAfter the Bolsheviks took over in October 1917, Russia made peace with Germany and withdrew from WWI.The Soviet Union or USSR would be formed and lasted until 1991 through the Cold War Era.
11 1919 Versailles TreatyUS President Wilson’s Fourteen Points became the backbone of the peace treatyFighting ceased in 1918, but peace was not signed until Versailles in 1919League of Nations was created, but the US would not join it because Wilson lost support from within the American Senate due to poor people skills and politics in the United StatesThus, Wilson was shown to be a less than powerful figure allowing France and Britain to largely control the peace accord and war reparations or repayments from Germany.
12 End of WWI continuedFundamental ideas of Wilson such as a lasting peace were written into the peace accordBut, anti-imperial changes were only applied to Germany and its allies.Thus, Germany and Austria were torn apart and their once large European Empires were redrawn on the map forming several new states.Germany was torn apart into states that were given to Poland, Russia, and France.Austria-Hungary as an empire turned into the state of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.Germany’s colonies in Africa and in the Pacific became “mandates” administered by the League of Nations under the Mandatory System which redrew the map of Africa again.Essentially, the Treaty of Versailles would geographically redraw the maps of Europe and Africa