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World War II.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II

2 Focus: Why will some people turn to dictators instead of democracy?

3 Failure of Treaty of Versailles
Germans upset about losing land Soviets upset about losing land Some democracies did emerge, but with problems

4 many expected to pay huge debts
widespread hunger homelessness unemployment

5 Many democracies collapsed and dictators took control
Joseph Stalin Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler

6 Stalin - Soviet Union Lenin dies in 1924 - Stalin takes over
focuses on creating a model communist state eliminate private enterprise, private farming (people work for government)

7 By 1939 Soviet Union is 3rd largest industrial power (U. S
By 1939 Soviet Union is 3rd largest industrial power (U.S. and Germany are 1st and 2nd) Anyone who spoke out against government was executed responsible for 8-13 million deaths

8 Totalitarian - maintains total control over citizens (no rights)
Benito Mussolini - Italy Fascism - political movement of a strong, centralized government headed by a powerful dictator. Not communists

9 Mussolini was allowed to form a new government by the King
Called himself “Il Duce” or “The Chief” Crushed opposition and totalitarian state

10 Adolf Hitler -Germany Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
outlined beliefs of Nazism Dreamed of uniting all German speaking people under one empire

11 Aryan Race - blue eyes/blond hair
Jewish people were inferior Hitler wanted to expand

12 1933 - Hitler was voted into power.
Established the Third Reich (Third German Empire)

13 Militarists in Japan Military leaders invade Manchuria
Militarists take control of Japan’s government League of Nations gave Japan a “slap on the wrist”. Japan quit League

14 Hitler establishes a pact with Italy
He sends troops to the Rhineland (a German region near France that was demilitarized) Italy planned to invade Ethiopia League of Nations did nothing

15 Poland (Sept.1,1939) Germany launches the “Blitzkrieg” - lightning war
take the enemy by surprise Britain/France declare war on Germany on Sept. 3rd

16 Discussion Questions 1. What were some of Hitler’s goals?
2. Why did the treaty of Versailles fail?

17 Focus What is isolationism and when did the US turn to it?

18 World War II begins No more Poland
Stalin begins taking lands lost during WWI as well as Finland April 9, 1940

19 Germany begins attacking Denmark, Norway, Neth.,Belgium and Luxembourg
France builds the “Maginot Line” -fortifications on German border

20 June 1940 Germany and Italy gang up to take France. French General Charles de Gualle fled to England.

21 Battle of Britain Germany launched an air war with the Luftwaffe -German airforce. Two months solid of air raids on London. British Royal Air Force - used radar to detect Germans

22 Germany eventually called off the raids

23 Germany Goes to Czechoslovakia
continued to expand by taking Czech. U.S.S.R./Germany sign Non-Aggression Pact agree not to fight each other agreed to divide Poland up

24 The Holocaust the systematic murder of 11 million people. More than half were Jews Hitler wanted racial purity Anti-Semitism-hatred of Jews. Hitler used them as his scapegoat.

25 Jews wore the Star of David as identification
Kristallnacht - “crystal night” - night of broken glass. Raids against Jewish homes, stores etc. 20,000 arrested and sent to concentration camps

26 Jewish Refugees fled to other countries
Albert Einstein etc. went to U.S. U.S. had limitations because of the depression

27 Genocide - deliberate and systematic killing of an entire people
Germany began to implement this plan using concentration camps. Jews, Poles, Disabled, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Soviets, Homosexuals

28 Concentration Camps People were held there to work.
Thousand killed daily. Shot, gassed, starved Auschwitz was the largest. (Poland)

29 Crematoriums - ovens to burn the dead
Medical experiments were performed

30 U.S. - Anti-War Neutrality Acts - Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war Appeasement -giving up principles to pacify an aggressor.

31 U.S. Cash and Carry - nations can buy arms from the U.S. as long as they paid cash and carried them home.

32 U.S. begins sending weapons and destroyers
Boosted defense spending Draft - 16 million men between 21 and 35 registered

33 FDR breaks tradition by running for a 3rd term.
He wins.

34 Discussion Questions 1.What areas did Hitler take over?
2.Why were many Jewish refugees not allowed into the US?

35 Focus Why wasn’t the United States attacked during WWI?

36 1941 Lend-Lease Plan - to any country whose defense is vital to U.S.
Germany attacks Soviet Union U.S. aids Soviet Union Many didn’t want to aid Stalin

37 Atlantic Charter - FDR and Great Britain outlined the guidelines for war.
no expansion allowed protect rights of people free trade international cooperation build peace disarmament and security

38 Allies - nations joined to fight Axis powers
Germans began attacking merchant ships no war from U.S.

39 U.S. imposed trade restrictions on Japan because of their violent expansion efforts in the Pacific
Japan couldn’t continue without oil and fuel from U.S. they tried to negotiate, not successful

40 Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, Japan attacks Hawaiian navel base for an hour and a half. 18 ships damaged 350 planes destroyed or damaged.

41 2,400 people dead 1,178 people injured U.S. declares war on Japan Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.

42 U.S. and Britain Decide Germany is top priority
Soviet Union needs help Once Hitler is defeated then go to Japan Accept only the unconditional surrender of Axis powers

43 Battle in the Atlantic U-boats attack U.S. ships
U.S. responds with rapid ship building U.S. comes back to defeat Germans in Atlantic

44 War in Pacific Japan worked hard to take control of much of the East
U.S. goes to Philippines with 80,000 men and MacArthur fighting against 200,000 Japanese. U.S. had to retreat.

45 U.S. attacks Japan in a Pearl Harbor style air raid
Battle of Midway Island U.S. met Japanese there with Admiral Chester Nimitz. U.S. defeats Japanese

46 Island Hopping U.S. began hopping to weak islands to gain control eventually began defeating Japan. Iwo Jima 200 Japanese survived of 20,700


48 Homefront More soldiers needed - more volunteer and more are drafted
Soldiers are known as G.I.s - government issue describes clothes, weapons, supplies and now soldiers

49 Women were now joining the military
250,000 women served in WWII Many minority groups were represented as well

50 Native Americans - 25,000 Japanese Am - 33,000 Chinese Am - 13,000 African Americans - 1,000,000+ Latinos - 500,000+

51 Many new factories producing war materials
millions of women went to work

52 Sacrifices “We are now at war. We are now in it—all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history.” Franklin Roosevelt December 9, 1941

53 Rationing Food: meat, sugar, butter Tires, gasoline.
Collect fabric, scrap metal, old tires for recycling. Meatless Tuesdays. Men’s suits became cuff less and vest less.

54 Propaganda “Kick ‘em in the Axis” became a popular slogan.

55 Discussion Questions 1.Why would the US and Britain develop the Atlantic Charter (think about how WWI ended)? 2.What is Island Hopping?

56 Focus Why does the US military have an advantage in the world today?

57 FDR created OSRD - Office of Scientific Research and Development
Scientists improved radar and sonar (underwater) Use of pesticides kept soldiers free from lice Developed penicillin

58 Manhattan Project development of the Atomic Bomb
Germans split uranium atoms Einstein encouraged FDR to look at it A-bomb in the works

59 Japanese Internment Camps
Hundreds of thousands were rounded up and confined 2/3 were Nisei - born in U.S. (citizens)

60 Federal Control (OPA) Office of Price Administration - freeze prices to avoid inflation (WPB) War Productions Board - decided which factories would start wartime production. Drives to collect iron, cans etc.

61 Rationing - fixed amounts of goods
meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, gas carpool


63 The Big Three Leaders of the Allies (Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin) met at Yalta in February of 1945 to discuss Europe’s postwar strategy.

64 Battle of Leyte Gulf The largest naval battle of WWII
First battle where the Japanese organized kamikaze attacks Led to the US gaining the Philippines

65 Battle of Bulge Allies form a 80 mile long front.
The Germans pushed through and created a “Bulge” in the line

66 “Bulge” lasted a month Germans were eventually pushed back 120,000 troops, 600 tank/guns, 1,600 planes lost for the Germans

67 Battle of Stalingrad Bitter winter in Russia
Major turning point in the war on the Eastern front Germany fights to take Stalingrad had 9/10 of city when Stalin launched a counter attack to force Germans to surrender

68 91,000 Germans surrendered 1,250,000 Soviets died (more than all the Americans in the whole war)

69 Americans and Dwight D. Eisenhower go to Africa to control Axis aggression.
By they had all surrendered

70 U.S. and Allies enter Italy who wanted to get rid of Mussolini but couldn’t after Germans took control. Fighting in Italy lasted 18 months.

71 Allies drove the Germans out with help from Italians who resisted Mussolini.
April 28th, 1945 Italian resisters found Mussolini. They shot him and hung him

72 Fighting in Europe Allies plan an invasion into France. (Normandy Peninsula) In preparation they bomb supply routes.

73 D-Day - June 6, 1944 156,000 troops, 4,000 landing craft, 600 warships, 11,000 planes invaded France. German retaliation was fierce! By Sept, 1944 the Allies freed France, Belgium, Lux. And most of the Netherlands

74 Discussion Questions 1.Why did the United States develop internment camps? 2.What is rationing?

75 Focus Why would some be for atomic bomb to end WWII, and some be against?

76 FDR is elected AGAIN! Truman is his Vice President
Harry S Truman - from Independence, Missouri

77 Surrender Americans moved in from east Soviets moved in from west
Began to liberate concentration camps Soviets stormed Berlin

78 Hitler marries Eva Braun
The next day they committed suicide he shot himself, she drank poison

79 May 8, 1945 V-E day The Third Reich accepted unconditional surrender

80 FDR dies - April 12,1945 Truman takes over
Truman learns of Manhattan Project headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer in N. Mexico

81 A-bomb was ready and tested July 16, 1945
the flash could be seen 180 miles away

82 Okinawa - last defensive outpost
7,600 Americans die 110,000 Japanese die

83 Many scientists were opposed to using the bomb
Options: drop without warning drop in remote location as a warning

84 August 6,1945 Enola Gay - B-29 bomber released “Little Boy” over Hiroshima Japan did not surrender 3 Days later “Fat Man” was dropped on Nagasaki

85 200,000 people died as a result of the A-bomb
September 2nd, Japan surrenders on the U.S.S. Missouri

86 Peace Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945)
Churchill, FDR, Stalin agreed on United Nations 5 permanent seats - U.S., Great Britain, Soviet Union, France, China

87 Germany was divided into 4 sectors.
U.S., G.B., Soviet Union, and France each occupied one.

88 Nuremberg Trials Nazi leaders tried for their crimes
22 tried - 12 sentenced to death 200 more later found guilty

89 Japanese Occupation MacArthur reformed Japan’s economy and called for a new constitution women’s suffrage guarantee basic freedoms free elections

90 World War II is over U.S. now has to deal with the threat of Communism in the Cold War

91 Discussion Questions 1.How was Berlin split up following the war?
2.What impact has the US had on Japan?

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