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Turf Production Without Pesticides

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Presentation on theme: "Turf Production Without Pesticides"— Presentation transcript:

1 Turf Production Without Pesticides
Glen Sampson

2 A Change in Attitude Prevention is the key
Treating the cause rather than the symptoms pesticides are no longer the only way to go We cannot only be concerned about the specific site we are dealing with but adjacent areas as well Total site management not just pest management We must be more knowledgeable about what is going on in a turf

3 Growing Turf Without “Pesticides”
The philosophy of growing turf (or anything else) without pesticides is simply that a healthy soil grows healthy plants When you feed the beneficial life in the soil, those growing populations of microorganisms begin to accomplish many jobs that now consume great amounts of your time, money, and energy.

4 Key Definitions Plant Health Care (PHC) – A comprehensive system for managing the appearance, structure, and vitality of ornamental landscapes and sports turf within client expectations Site evaluation and preparation Plant selection, establishment, and cultivation Pest management Plant removal and utilization Integrated Pest Mgt. (IPM) – A method for managing pests that combines cultural, biological, and chemical control tactics into a single management strategy IPM is an essential component of the PHC management system!

5 Key Definitions Pest – any organism that
threatens the health, structure, appearance, or value of desirable plants Competes with desirable plants for resources Diminishes personal enjoyment, comfort, or safety in the landscape Most organisms in the landscape are not pests Many organisms make positive contributions to the landscape A “pest” is not always a pest Not all pests require control

6 Categorizing the site Class A Class B Class C
High level of service: fine ornamental lawns, golf and lawn bowling greens, irrigated sports fields. Class B Moderate level of service: general park areas, residential and commercial lawns, boulevards, recreational fields, golf fairways. Class C Low level of service: meadows, picnic areas, rough grass, undeveloped and naturalized areas.

7 IPM is: A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels or below what causes damage that is aesthetically unacceptable. Prevention is the key Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with turf/landscape manager’s objectives.

8 A changing perspective on IPM and its implementation
an increasingly competitive market higher expectations continued societal concerns over pesticides increasing regulations in many areas newer, less-toxic products Treating problems rather than symptoms

9 Societal and industry concerns
Environmental concerns Pesticide contamination of urban creeks, estuaries, and other waterways is an increasing concern Health concerns Chronic health concerns, environmental sensitivities Pesticide resistance Pest resurgence Pest replacement These are industry concerns as well as societies concern.

10 Glyphosate Resistant Buckthorn Plantain
Rates: L/ha 2 4 6 8 10 Glyphosate resistant Susceptible

11 Sustainable Landscape Practices
Best Management Practices Emphasize plant health and longevity creating outdoor spaces that utilize fewer inputs are environmentally friendly are self-perpetuating over a period of time. Improve the environment by conserving resources, reducing chemical inputs and reduce labour inputs

12 Manage pests Most problems in lawns are not caused by pests, such as weeds, insects or disease-causing pathogens. Damage is more likely the result of poor turfgrass selection or improper maintenance practices. Providing proper care and using an appropriate turfgrass species can prevent the majority of lawn problems.

13 Does IPM work? “If our team invested time monitoring the turf conditions and paid attention to what were the stressors on a specific area such as a sports field, we knew we could keep the area very healthy with good plant cultural practices,” -Karen Richter, Organizational Leader of Parks Maintenance at the City of Waterloo. With the consistent application of sound horticultural practices, Waterloo decreased its use of pesticides at a steady pace throughout the 1980s. By the mid-1980s, the city had eliminated blanket spraying. By 1990, Waterloo spot sprayed less than 10 per cent of its green space.

14 Basic Principles of IPM
A dense, vigorously growing, healthy plant population will resist invasion by pests Pests must be kept below levels that are incompatible with the purpose of the desirable species

15 A Good Pest Management Strategy
A good pest management strategy incorporates some or all methods available to manage a given pest. The goal to reduce pest populations and damage to economically and aesthetically tolerable levels. Complete eradication may not be possible, practical, or desirable.

16 A Good Pest Management Strategy
Prevention Prevention the introduction and/or spread of a pest Into or away from a site Exclusion One of the safest and most effective ways to manage pests in the home environment is to deny them access - pest-proofing Exclusion by Regulation Mechanical Exclusion

17 What does a Turf IPM program look like
Tom Voigt and Tom Fermanian - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

18 Establishing new turf Rapid establishment of turf is desirable
Reduces erosion Suppresses weed seed germination and weed growth Optimum seeding rates ( kg 100m2) Healthy turf to enter winter

19 Pre-plant weed control
Cultivation Irrigate to allow germination of weeds in planting bed. Follow up with a shallow (less than 1 inch) cultivation after weeds have emerged but before they get too big (usually before they have 4 leaves). Repeat the irrigation and cultivation cycle two or three times for best results. Summer cultivation for perennials For perennial weeds, it is ideal to repeatedly cultivate soil in summer, keeping it completely dry for extended periods to dehydrate propagules (stems, rhizomes, or tubers). Herbicide application Irrigate to allow germination of weed seeds in planting bed. Apply non-selective herbicide, such as glyphosate. Repeat the irrigation and herbicide cycle if necessary. Solarization Solarization is very effective during the hottest part of the year. Six weeks are required for best results

20 Role of soil microorganisms
Fertilize by fixing nitrogen from the air, mineralizing soil organic nutrient, generating carbon dioxide, and dissolving mineral nutrient from rock De-thatch by composing thatch and other organic matter into valuable nutrients and humus, which in turn increase the water and nutrient holding capacity of the soil Aerate the soil Control many insect and disease problems by competition and predation

21 Soil amendments and fertilizers
Fertilizers vs. soil amendments Fertilizers improve the supply of nutrients in the soil, directly affecting plant growth. Soil amendments improve a soil's physical condition (e.g. soil structure, water infiltration), indirectly affecting plant growth. Topsoil Topsoil may be added to raise the soil level to a minimum depth of 6 to 8 inches. The topsoil should be mixed into the existing soil. Soil pH The ideal soil pH ranges from Grass loses it comprtitive ability at lower pH

22 Soil amendments Organic (material) amendments
Organic material improves soil structure. Organic material can be added to sandy soils to increase nutrient and moisture retention. Clay soils can also be amended with organic material to help loosen the soil and provide better aeration and drainage. Compost is the easiest organic material to use. A rotary tiller works best to incorporate the organic material to your soil. A layer of inches spread over your site should be tilled to a depth of inches.

23 Choose and identify your turf species
Successful selection of a turf grass requires knowing how the turf will be used, where it will be grown and what level of quality is desired Failure to properly identify a turf grass species can lead to mistakes in maintenance. not all turf grass species tolerate the same mowing height or frequency. Irrigation frequency and the amount of water needed vary among species as do the frequency and amount of fertilizer. Turf grasses also differ in how they adapt to sun, shade, and temperature. Most lawns are mixtures of various turf grass species.

24 Endophytic grasses Endophyte is a naturally occurring fungus that grows symbiotically in the grass plant. It produces compounds that prevent insects from feeding on the leaves and stems of the plant. Improved performance under low maintenance situations makes some of the endophytic forms good candidates for low maintenance uses such as on roadside right of ways and in parks. The presence of the fungus improves plant vigour and helps with resistance to some environmental stresses. Avanex™ - endophyte tall fescue for airports – research has shown that it reduces bird populations by 87%

25 Concerns with endophytic grasses
Animal toxicity – alkaloids -Ergovaline Reduced biodiversity Invasive species Storage issues that affect the viability of the endophytes – therefore, variety may not perform as expected

26 Lawn care for established lawns
No two lawns are exactly alike. Lawns may differ by turf species, soil type, climate, location, how they are used, and how they are maintained. Tailor a program with the specifics of your situation in mind. A good maintenance program includes Mowing Irrigating Fertilizing Dethatching Aerating A well-planned and executed maintenance program will produce good-looking, green turf grass that will quickly recover from wear, pest damage, or mechanical injury

27 Lawn renovation Some causes of lawns deterioration
from poor maintenance, inadequate drainage heavy traffic pest problems, weed invasions, simply because the wrong grass species was planted.

28 Lawn Renovation Neglected lawns
Take better care of your lawn and bring it back to life with regular maintenance. Localized problems - Partially renovate your lawn by patching. Problem areas spread throughout the lawn Overseed your lawn. Severe problems encompassing more than 40% of the lawn Completely renovate your lawn by killing it and starting over from scratch. Don't repeat mistakes! Find the cause of your problems before you renovate

29 Weeds as stress indicators in turf
Species Condition Annual bluegrass low fertility, compact soil, mowing too short, excessive moisture Buttercup Excessive moisture Chickweed thin grass, excessive moisture Clover low nitrogen, drought, compaction Crabgrass thin grass, low fertility, compaction Dandelion thin grass, low fertility, mowing too short Hawkweed low pH

30 Weeds as stress indicators in turf
Species Condition Sheep sorrel low pH Moss heavy shade, low fertility, low pH Plantain low fertility, mowing too short Dock excessive moisture Creeping charlie excessive shade

31 Overseeding a lawn When should you overseed?
Your lawn appears to be in good condition, but just a little thin Thinning lawn following winter High traffic areas Always determine and solve the cause of your current problem before beginning repairs, and plan to seed at a time of year appropriate to the planted turf species. What should you overseed with? If your lawn is in relatively good condition in most areas, choose the seed mix you used in the past or turf recommended for overseeding

32 Patching the lawn with seed, sod, sprigs, plugs, stolons
Overseeding your lawn Closely mow the turf and rake up the debris Dethatch and aerate Seed, fertilize, and irrigate Maintenance Patching the lawn with seed, sod, sprigs, plugs, stolons Dig out the affected area Work the soil Replant with seed, sod, stolons, sprigs, plugs Complete renovation Kill the existing turf and weeds Remove the remaining turf Rethink your irrigation system Prepare the soil

33 Thinning lawn

34 What are the abiotic stress factors

35 Examples of poor design that can lead to problems

36 Abiotic factors Dog Urine

37 Abiotic factors Fertilizer burn

38 Abiotic factors Nitrogen deficiency

39 Abiotic factors Uneven fertilizer application

40 Abiotic factors Overwatering

41 Abiotic factors Glyphosate (Roundup damage)

42 Abiotic factors Items left on lawn

43 Abiotic factors Scalping

44 Abiotic factors Shade

45 Abiotic factors Dull mower blades

46 Components of a Sustainable Urban Landscape/Golf Course Program
Fertility management Mowing practices Water management Traffic management Weed management Disease and insect management Integrated pest (turf) management =

47 “A pest management philosophy”
Recognizes there is no “cure-all” in pest control. Dependence on any one pest management method will have undesirable effects. Determine and correct the cause of the pest problem. Understanding Pest biology and ecology is essential. Manipulate the environment to the crop’s advantage and to the detriment of the pest. Recognizes that eradication of a pest is seldom necessary or even desirable, and generally not possible. Some damage is unavoidable and acceptable

48 Effective pest management plans
are comprehensive in scope integrate agronomic and biological principles integrates cultural, biological and chemical pest control practices. They provide proven, science-driven and reliable methods for resolving the sometimes conflicting goals that golf course superintendents face producing consistently high quality, high playability turf at the same time reducing environmental impacts and keeping within budget constraints.

49 Schematic of IPM Concept
Toolbox of management tactics: Biological Controls Cultural Controls Mechanical Controls Chemical Controls Decision-making aids: Proper Pest Identification Pest Monitoring Methods Environmental Monitoring Use of Degree Days Models economic injury Action thresholds Knowledge of pest/host/ecosystem biology: Life Cycle Behaviour Seasonal Cycle Population dynamics Interaction Schematic of IPM Concept

50 Approaches for Turf Protection using IPM
Regulation using certified seed, sod, sprigs Genetic selection of the best adapted species/cultivars for the location Cultural – a healthy grass means fewer problems Physical – isolating areas where pests are a problem Biological – favouring natural competition Chemical

51 The ability to identify, understand the biology and stay abreast of control strategies for golf course pests – including weeds, diseases, insects and other arthropods and nematodes – is essential for development and implementation of IPM plans.

52 “Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound” Risk vs
“Each Pest Control Technique Must be Environmentally Sound” Risk vs. Benefits

53 And “Compatible with With Producers Objectives”

54 Pest Identification What are the key pests to be managed in the system, what are their life cycles, how do they reproduce and how do they disperse. Text books Fact sheets Specialists Expert pest id systems





59 Monitoring - What’s Needed
Site Descriptions Past history, soil factors, fertility level, drainage, management Develop a descriptive and predictive models What pests are most likely to occur, ways in which they can be introduced and seriousness of the problem Identify and fill in knowledge gaps Life cycles, reproductive strategy Biology, ecology

60 MONITORING Based on visual inspections (rough estimations) and on pest counts, presence It is important to keep written records of all counts, as well as notes from visual inspections for future reference. Photographs are useful as a record.

61 Diagnosing your problem
Lawn problems are difficult to diagnose, and the diagnosis process can be quite complex. Remember that most turf grass problems are caused by improper management practices, not by insects or diseases. Before you begin the diagnostic process, take a look at how you manage your lawn. You may be able to solve your problem by simply changing your cultural practices.

62 Diagnostic tips Know the history of your lawn
Know your predominant turf species Identify the problem when you first see symptoms Check for symptoms in the early morning Collect entire grass plant samples Perform a drench test Get help

63 Drench test

64 Winter dessication

65 Pink Snow Mold Michrodochium nivale

66 Gray Snow mold Typhula spp.

67 anthracnose Colletotrichum graminicola

68 Colletotrichum graminicola

69 Sclerotinia homoeocarpa
Dollar spot Sclerotinia homoeocarpa

70 Fairy ring

71 Crane flies

72 White grubs

73 Japanese Beetle

74 European Chafer

75 Chafer Damage

76 June Bug

77 Black Turfgrass Ataenius

78 Black Turfgrass Ataenius damage

79 White Grubs Japanese Beetle European Chafer June Beetle

80 Chinch bug

81 Action Threshold Pest Population at which a grower must take action to prevent a pest populations from reaching the economic injury level Economic threshold is slightly below the economic injury level Pest populations must be increasing

82 Economic Injury Level (Aesthetic)
Action Threshold Pest Density Pest Population This graph explains the relationship of the Economic Injury Level to the Economic Threshold. The red arrow may indicate a pesticide application which was applied at the economic threshold and did not allow the pest population to reach the Economic Injury Level. Time

83 Action thresholds In turf, it is difficult to put a dollar value
Therefore it is dictated by the individuals tolerance for pest damage -aesthetic Aesthetic threshold – similar to economic threshold except based on what is visually unacceptable Most lawns can withstand some loss of foliage without quality and growth being affected May need to adjust aesthetic sensitivities to allow for a little more damage

84 “To Keep Pests Below the Economic Injury Level”
Cost of control = $ amount of damage caused by the pest Includes amount of pest damage Cost of each control practice Are determined through extensive research Economic Injury Level is the information that is necessary to develop an Economic Threshold, which is used by crop advisors

85 Action thresholds of some common pests
Number per sq. ft. Monitoring method Army worms 3-4 Visual, soap flush Chinch bugs 20 adults Flotation, soap flush Cutworms 1 White grubs Visual

86 Action thresholds for cranefly
Average # larvae per sq. ft Decision 0- 25 Do nothing; fertilize appropriately. May need to treat if turf is young, not well established and with poor root structure If your lawn is vigorous and healthy, do nothing. Decisions are based on the health of the turf, your personal tolerance, location and use of the turf 50-80 Treat crane fly problem. Look towards long-term solutions, such as replacing problem areas with a turf alternative species.

87 Insect traps for monitoring
Visual cues – color traps omnidirectional shape smooth poly surface scientifically tapered cone attractive, permanent yellow color

88 Growing degree days Daily high + daily low/2 – base development temperature of the insect=daily degree days Below the base development temperature the insect will not develop. Insects vary in their base development temperature. The base development temperature of European corn borer is 7oC

89 Example Can use a max-min thermometer Cumulative total Max = 25oC
Min = 10oC Average = 17.5oC Subtract base temperature 7oC Total degree days = 10.5 Cumulative total

90 Chinch bug and damage

91 Hairy Chinch Bug Blissus leucopterus hirtus
Immature nymphs - bright red in colour when they first hatch, and begin to darken from brick red to grey/brown when they are nearly mature Characteristic white band across their abdomen which is eventually covered by the enlarging wings as the insects become larger and mature.

92 Control - monitoring obtain a large can which has a circular area of approximately 200 centimetres cut out the bottom and the top to form a cylinder and force this into the turf fill the cylinder with water, the chinch bugs will soon float to the surface where they can be seen

93 Growing degree days – Chinch bug
max temperature – min temperature – base temperature 2 427 and 877 degree-days (7ºC base, air temperature) numbers of second and third instar nymphs peak between mid-July and mid-August. Threshold -100 nymphs per sq ft. Based on growing degree-days for normal years - monitor for chinch bugs from July 1 to mid-August.

94 Annual bluegrass BIOLOGY a winter annual, cool-season grass.
The leaf tips are boat-shaped like the bow of a boat. Poa has a prominent membranous ligule and a shallow, fibrous root system. The plant oftentimes is lighter green than perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass and creeping bentgrass.

95 Annual Bluegrass

96 Annual Bluegrass Annual Bluegrass is a lighter green colour than Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue and therefore causes discoloration throughout the lawn It has a tendency to thin out and die during summer drought conditions. This can cause areas of patching which weeds and insects will take advantage of. its seed head production is higher than Kentucky Bluegrass or Fine Fescue, which causes the lawn to appear overrun and not well maintained and gives it an unsightly look.

97 Control of Annual Bluegrass
Use certified seed and cut out and re-seed bare areas or overseed later in season Aerating your lawn once a year Water deeply and infrequently to encourage good root development in your Fescue and Bluegrass lawns. Mow at 2 1/2 to 3 inches to discourage development of seed heads.U Unless a soil test recommends otherwise, cut back on applying high phosphorus fertilizers Slow release N fertilizers and spread over the summer

98 Control Insecticides cultural and mowing practices that minimize thatch accumulation WATCH FOR Chinch bugs when weather turns hot and dry Weekly deep waterings

99 Should Pesticides be used in an IPM Program?
Pesticides used only as a last resort and in a manner that is legal. Pesticides are to be used when there is no risk of environmental damage or when benefits outweigh the risks. Use pesticides only when other control practices aren’t available, economical or practical. Must monitor pest populations in the field. Identify the pest Compare pest population and the economic threshold Life stage susceptible to pesticide? Crop stage and preventable loss.

100 What is “Cultural Control”
Agronomic practices that are designed to: Optimize growing conditions for the desirable plants. Anything that increases a plant’s competitive edge will result in increased tolerance to pests often resulting in reduced pesticide use. Create unfavorable conditions for the pest E.g. fertility management, irrigation scheduling, mowing heights

101 What is Mechanical Control?
Uses machinery and/or other tools to control pests Mowing Physical barriers Mulches Floating mulch Greens covers

102 What is Sanitary Control?
Methods to avoid introducing a pest into a site Cleaning equipment –mowers, golf carts, fertilizer applicators Planting certified seed Quarantines

103 What is Natural Control?
Enhancement of naturally occurring pest management methods Beneficial insects Beneficial diseases

104 What is Biological Control?
Manipulation of biological organism to control pests Release of predators/parasites/disease of an insect or weed Can be time consuming, expensive and difficult E.g. cinnabar moth,

105 Registered Bioherbicides
“Biomal” for roundleaf mallow control 2003 – “Chontrol” for woody shrubs along rights of way 2007 – “Sarritor” limited use of Sclerotinia minor on dandelion

106 Dandelion

107 Dandelion control

108 Biological Pesticides
Herbicides Fungicides Insecticides Sarritor™ Biomal™ Chontrol™ Nivalis™ Mycostop™ Rootshield™ Serenade™ (Bacillus Subtilis) Rhapsody™ BTK – Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) Beauveria bassiana

109 Constraints for use of biological pesticides
Environmental Specific temperature and moisture requirements Formulation Shelf life Specificity

110 Natural Products Herbicides Fungicides Insecticides
Acetic acid (vinegar) Citric Acid Organosol™ (Lactic acid/citric acid) Fiesta™ (FeHDTA) Elemental Sulphur Garlic powder Borax Garlic oil

111 What is Host Plant Resistance?
Manipulating the plant to withstand or tolerate pests Natural breeding method Genetically modified plants Not a permanent method of control Examples: resistant varieties, endophyte grasses

112 Barriers to adaptation of IPM
There is a large gap between the general IPM principles found in textbooks and the development of site-specific strategies that address issues of climate and weather, turf varieties, soil and water quality, specific pest complexes, client/golfer expectations and varying budgets. There are currently few tools available to landscapers/superintendents that bridge this gap, and as a result, IPM programs are rarely realized to their full potential.

113 Barriers to adaptation of IPM
Once IPM plans are developed, they cannot remain static. Shifts in pest populations Changes in client/golf course expectations and budgets The introduction of new products, technologies and scientific information Require methods of evaluating new advances as well as procedures for periodic updating of IPM plans.

114 Barriers to adaptation of IPM
Monitoring (for pests, weather, equipment operation/calibration and for the quality of water, soil and turf) and record keeping are the backbone of any successful IPM program Information on monitoring and record keeping tools and procedures needs to be centralized and presented in a form that is easily accessible to landscapers/golf course superintendents.

115 Barriers to adaptation of IPM
Objective evaluation of the success (or failure) of newly introduced practices in meeting turf maintenance goals. Without tools for assessing the effectiveness of new techniques, the landscapers/superintendent’s ability to justify and promote their management decisions can be compromised.

116 Barriers to adaptation of IPM
Superintendents vary widely in their technical backgrounds, computer literacy access to information. And golf courses vary widely in their interest in IPM principles and the budgets available to implement them. Yet the ability to incorporate IPM into turf management programs should be feasible for all interested superintendents and golf courses Rather than assuming a “one size fits all” approach to IPM, successful plans need to be flexible enough to take these differences into account and to make it possible for superintendents at levels to participate.

IPM golfpro™ is a web based software specifically designed for golf course Superintendents to track and manage their Spray and Scout activities. IPM golfpro™ offers the following: Easy to use and understand Plan, execute, track and document your pest management strategies Generate reports required by the IPM regulatory legislation Track your Fertilizer and Pesticide usage Calibrate your Sprayers Track your staff Training history

118 PRICING: Annual Subscription in CAD$ (plus applicable taxes)
Annual subscription to IPM golfpro™ software includes initial course setup, technical support, maintenance and updates PRICING: Annual Subscription in CAD$ (plus applicable taxes) Number of Holes 9 $349 18 $698 27 $1047 36 $1396

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