Presentation on theme: "Session Objectives Analyse the components of a good learning design"— Presentation transcript:
1 Session Objectives Analyse the components of a good learning design Model learning design examplesProduce an effective and efficient learning design for selected SP graduate attributesDesign integrated activities for selected graduate attributesIdentify the knowledge and skill components of teaching ‘holistically’Identify assessment methods for selected graduate attributes
2 Implementing Holistic Education: What Next... ...now that You have mapped the attributes inYour Course and Modules
4 SP Graduate Attributes CDIO Skills Workshop 1CDIO Skills Workshop 1SummarySP Graduate Attributes(Competency areaswith customizedSLO’s)EvaluationInfuse GraduateAttributesinto Course &Module structureProduce LearningDesigns fordevelopingcompetenceTo summarise, what have we done so far for Box 3?Generated examples of learning designs and activities to introduce, teach or utilise the selected CDIO skillsIdentified what makes good learning designsLooked at the steps involved in producing good learning activitiesTo conclude:It is important that not to add more to the already over crowded curriculum but to modify the activities that already exists to integrate the skills….don’t try to overloaded students with mini projects but explore how existing activities can provide opportunities to ‘introduce’, ‘teach’ or ‘utilise’ the selected CDIO skills.Tomorrow, what will we be doing?ProduceAssessmentItems for assessingcompetenceEDUSupport44
5 Graduate Attributes Learning Outcomes Assessment System Learning CDIO Skills Workshop 1Curriculum AlignmentLearningOutcomesGraduateAttributesAssessmentSystemLearningDesignsThis slides identifies the 3 most important components of the curriculum (learning outcomes, Instructional methods/strategies and assessment), which need to be planned in unison to achieve consistency of purpose. For example, the assessment strategy must validly assess the learning outcomes.Similarly, the instructional methods and strategies must be those which offer the best opportunities for facilitating the types of learning identified in the learning outcomesIn basic terms this means that the Graduate Attribute knowledge/skill componentsincorporated in the Learning Outcomes must be effectively taught through theLearning Designs used and accurately measured in the Assessment System.5
6 CDIO Skills Workshop 1CDIO Skills Workshop 1Learning DesignA Learning Design is a planned experience (e.g., a Strategy involving a number of instructional methods, activities and resources) that facilitates desired learning outcomes for a group of students.A Learning Activity is any task (e.g., experiment, case, project, etc)that students are given to do, which aims to build keyunderstanding/competence relating to specific learning outcomes.Briefly explain learning design and learning activity:LD – The overall strategy you plan consisting of various methods & activities to achieve learning outcomes.LA – Performance Task that helps students become competent.Everything around us is designed by someone, except NATURE. Look at the chair you are sitting on. Is there a problem? Similarly, when we design for learning, we have to think STRATEGY!!Learning designs:are how we plan our lessonsto give students the experience neededto develop the understanding and competence required.This is done through activities (we plan for our students in our lessons).Example, to develop good creative thinking, we would provide them with learning tasks to brainstorm and use a range of creative thinking tools (SCAMPER) to generate ideas and possibilities.It is important to note that the learning activities should be pedagogically sound (ie calibrated to learning outcomes).For example, if we want students to define something, we should not give them a performance task.The learning activity has also to be interesting and motivating.(Questions to audience) What do you interests our students? (e.g. Students are interested in computer games, soccer, MTV)What do you think would happen if we design our activities around such topics?(e.g. students will tend to want to read up more on the topic, would be more engaged in discussion, think more about the topic, more positive disposition).Hence, a well-designed activity may achieve more than one outcome.66
7 The Essential Questions How to produce a Learning Design that can effectively and efficiently facilitate the desired learning?How to actually facilitate the learning experience for students in practice?
8 Planning the Learning Design What Learning Outcomes (objectives) are to be metSpecific subject content (facts, concepts, principles, procedures)Other graduate attributes (e.g., teamwork/communication, types of thinking, ethical reasoning, etc)What Instructional Methods can be employed(e.g., explanation, demonstration, Q & A, group work, simulation, etc)What Activities can support learning/assessment(e.g., performance task, case, project, etc)What additional Resources can support learning(e.g., texts, handouts, web links, etc)How can an effective and efficient strategy be designed for this group of learners?Note: this process is Iterative , not Linear
10 Why Integrate Competences? CDIO Skills Workshop 1Why Integrate Competences?Competences are context-dependent and should be learned and assessed in the technical context.Communication In Engineering Means Being Able To► Use The Technical Concepts Comfortably, ► Discuss A Problem At Different Levels, ► Determine What Is Relevant To The Situation, ► Argue For Or Against Conceptual Ideas And Solutions, ► Develop Ideas Through Discussion And Collaborative Sketching, ► Explain The Technical Matters For Different Audiences, ► Show Confidence In Expressing Yourself Within The Field...10
11 Teamwork in Engineering means? Being able to identify and utilize strengths of different team membersSetting goals, agendas, ground-rules and meeting deadlinesDealing quickly and effectively with disagreements/conflict
12 Creativity, Innovation & Enterprise Apply critical and creative thinking skills in problem solvingUse a range of critical thinking skills (e.g., analysis, comparison and contrast, inference and interpretation, and evaluation)Use the creative thinking process (e.g., generating possibilities, incubation, illumination)Identify barriers to effective thinking (e.g., traits, dispositions, working memory, perception, lack of information)Identify contradictory perspectives and underlying assumptionsUse metacognition in monitoring the quality of personal thinking
13 What is the relationship between Knowledge & Thinking? U
14 A Model of Thinking Meta-cognition Comparison & Contrast Inference & Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionA Model of ThinkingMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
15 Generating Possibilities Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionGenerating PossibilitiesWhat do we do when wegenerate possibilities?Generate many possibilitiesGenerate different types of possibilitiesGenerate novel possibilitiesMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisAll creative products involve thecombining of old ideas or elementsin new waysCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
16 Comparison and Contrast Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionComparison and ContrastMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisWhat do we do when we compare and contrast?Identify what is similar between things - objects/options/ideas, etcIdentify what is different between thingsIdentify and consider what is important about both the similarities and differencesIdentify a range of situations when the different features are applicableCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
17 Analysis What do we do when we analyse? Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionAnalysisMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisWhat do we dowhen we analyse?Identify relationship of the parts to a whole in system /structure/modelIdentify functions of each partIdentify consequences to the whole, if a part was missingIdentify what collections of parts form important sub-systems of the wholeIdentify if and how certain parts have a synergetic effectCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
18 Inference and Interpretation Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionInference and InterpretationWhat do we do when we make inferences and interpretations?Identify intentions and assumptions in dataSeparate fact from opinion in dataIdentify key points, connections, and contradictions in dataMake meaning of the data/information availableEstablish a best picture to make predictionsMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
19 Evaluation What do we do when we evaluate? Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionEvaluationWhat do we do when we evaluate?Decide on what is to be evaluatedIdentify appropriate criteria from which evaluation can be madePrioritize the importance of the criteriaApply the criteria and make decisionMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
20 Meta-cognition What are we doing when we are meta-cognitive? Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionMeta-cognitionWhat are we doing when we are meta-cognitive?Aware that we can think in an organized mannerActively thinking about the ways in which we are thinkingMonitoring and evaluating how effective we are thinkingSeeking to make more effective use of the different ways of thinking and any supporting learning/ thinking strategies /toolsMeta-cognitionComparison& ContrastInference &InterpretationEvaluationGenerating PossibilitiesAnalysisCopyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
21 CDIO Skills Workshop 1Diploma in Chemical Engineering CP5033 Plant Safety & Loss PreventionThinking about your thinkingWhat assumptions did I made?How can I spot an error if I make one?Do I know what do I need to know?Put simply, meta-cognition isBeing aware of one’s thinking, evaluating how well we are using the range of specific types of thinking and taking necessary corrective actionCommitment to taskWillingness to exert self control of learningBeing aware of the level of attention needed for a task and be able to adjust their focus accordingly.Evaluation, planning, and regulation help students gain executive control of behaviour. These processes are the primary focus of many definitions of metacognition. Evaluation refers to students' ongoing assessments of their knowledge or understanding, resources, tasks, and goals. Planning involves the purposeful selection of strategies for specific tasks and is dependent on declarative and conditional knowledge. Regulation includes the monitoring and revision of progress toward goals. Evaluation, planning, and regulating should take place at before, during, and after stages of tasks.Copyright 2010: D. Sale & SM Cheah. All Rights Reserved
23 What is Creativity? A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand. (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)<>One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He noted that they were the eyes of a cat, which were reflecting the light from his head lights. Percy was intrigued by this …and subsequently invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic.After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)
24 The Creative Process Preparation (ongoing- may be years) InterestPreparation (ongoing- may be years)Incubation (best between periods of intense focused workand rest)IlluminationVerificationApplication
25 Reframing & Creativity “How your perceive something makes all the difference andyou are free to see things from any perspective you wish”(Adler, 1996, p.145)To shift to a different frame will typically reframe one’s perspective andtherefore, one’s meaning. And when we do this, our very worldchanges, which changes the sensory experience, hence how we feelSlimy Pond LifeorTasty Dinner?
29 Forced Associations (Random Triggers) Forced Associations is a technique for linking another thinking pattern intothe one we are presently using. We do this by selecting a random concrete noun from a different field and combining it with the problem under consideration.For example, we might be looking at ways to make lifts quicker.By choosing a random word ‘Mirror’ could lead to installing mirrors by lifts.As we know this is a popular solution for ‘slow lifts’. The lift doesn’t go faster,but people waiting don’t notice this as they look in the mirror.Force Associatewith ‘Mirror’
30 PO (Provocative Operation) PO involves making deliberately provocative statements, which seek toforce thinking out of established patterns.Examples: “Everybody should go to prison”“Lets abolish schools”Having made a provocative statement, it is then necessary to suspend judgementand use the statement to generate ideas. For example, you can generate ideasby examining:The consequences of the statementWhat the benefits could be?What would need to change in order to make it a sensible statement?What would happen if a sequence of events changed?
31 Substitute Combine Adapt Magnify, Minify, Modify Put to other use SCAMPER is a checklist that helps tothink of ways to improve existing productsor create new onesSubstituteCombineAdaptMagnify, Minify, ModifyPut to other useEliminateReverse
32 Morphological Matrix X This tool encourages new possibilities through combining optionsOPTIONSXOPTIONS
33 Ethics & Responsibility Apply knowledge of sound values and ethics to professional and personallifeIdentify the need for values and ethical codes of conductCompare and contrast value systems and ethical codes of conductAnalyse the impact of values and ethical codes of conduct on personal and professional behaviorUse ethical reasoning on issues relating to human conduct in personal and professional contextsDemonstrate behaviour consistent with agreed codes of ethics and value systemsSB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os_hQD1NXIzdTEwP_EC9TA0__YFdLJ9cAIxMXU
34 ActivitiesLearning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting inclass listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spittingout answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relateit to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learnpart of themselves.(Chickering & Gamson)However, activities for activity sake is as bad as dull lecturing - in fact the second sin of teaching. Good activities must be meaningful, challenging but achievable, and effective in terms of facilitating the desired learning outcomes
35 Steps in Designing Learning Activities Step 1: Identify the subject knowledge/skills and other graduate attribute components to be incorporated into the activityFor this step, it is important to:Choose specific topic areas in your module(s)that contain knowledge essential for key understanding of the subject. For example, central concepts, principles and models.Identify the graduate attribute knowledge/skill components (e.g., critical thinking, creative thinking, communications, teamwork, etc) that promote student understanding/ competence in applying these topic areas.In a Thinking Curriculum, a lot of focus is placed on students being actively and collaboratively involved in real world problem-solving. The use of real life performance tasks, projects, case studies and other simulated real world activity is essential. However, it is important that these tasks are carefully designed to effectively promote the learning outcomes of the curriculum. In this and the following slide, the key steps and notes of guidance are provided to help you design these tasks. Remember, in the first set of slides “Underpinning model of learning…” – competent performance involves the dynamic use of knowledge, thinking, doing and desire. You will probably need to do a fair bit of thinking and doing in order to produce good learning tasks. However, the effort put in will be worth the benefits gained in terms of supporting instruction and helping students to learn effectively. Also, interesting and challenging tasks usually motivate students much more than traditional classroom learning activities.35
36 Steps in designing learning activities Step 2: Produce the learning activityIt is important that the activity:Clearly involves the application of the range of knowledge and skills identified from Step 1.Is sufficiently challenging, but realistically achievable in terms of student’s prior competence, access to resources, and time frames allocated.Successful completion usually involves more than one correct answer or more than one correct way of achieving the correct answerClear notes of guidance are provided, which:Identify the products of the activity and what formats of presentation are acceptable (e.g. written report, oral presentation, portfolio, etc)Specify the parameters of the activity (e.g. time, length, areas to incorporate, individual/collaborative, how much choice is permitted, support provided, etc)Cue the desired skills where relevant (e.g., types of thinking)Spell out key aspects of the assessment process and criteria.36
37 “Teaching Holistically” What does this mean? Understanding the connectedness of fields of knowledgeAbility to recognize and exploit “Teachable Moments”Competence in ‘Social & Emotional Intelligence’
38 What is a Teachable Moment? A teachable moment is an unplanned opportunitythat arises in the classroom where a teacher has anideal chance to offer insight to his or her students.
39 The Importance of ‘Emotionally Intelligent’ Teachers How emotions impact learningDetermining attentionMemory and recallAssociate learning with pleasure, novelty and pain – hence can foster intrinsic interest, perseverance, etc – or kill itInfluence the affective climate of the classroom“The emotions that teachers display – both consciously andunconsciously – can significantly enhance or inhibit student learning”(Powell & Powell, 2010)
40 Imitation & Mirror Neurons When people are interacting with each other, the same brain structures aresimultaneously activated in their brains. For example, if you watch someone making acup of coffee, your brain not only processes the action – it also reproduces it. Essentially, we are predisposed to imitate those around us, and much occurs subconsciously.This has big implications for how we impart beliefs and values to students. To a large extent, what they see in our behaviour - their perception - may be central to how we might influence them in the affective domain, for better or for worst.
41 What is Social Intelligence? There are many definitions in the literature. A simple but useful one is..… the ability to get along well with others and to get them to cooperate with you (Karl Albrecht)Key skills include:Sensory Acuity - ability to notice, to monitor, and to make sense of theexternal cues from other people. We do this through evaluating theresult of any behaviour. Requires good observation and listening skillsEmpathy - ability to put oneself into another persons situation and see the world from their set of experiences and perspectiveClarity of communication - ability to communicate clearly and authentically through calibration of words, tone and body language
42 What is Emotional Intelligence? Daniel Goleman’s 5 DimensionsSelf-Knowledge (Understanding oneself, integrating internal conflicts, knowing strengths & weaknesses emotionally)Self-Management/Regulation (The ability not to just react to events, but consider carefully the implications and consequences)Motivation (Our energy source – motivated teachers are seen as enthusiastic, optimistic and energetic)Social Awareness (Ability to empathize and feel what others might be experiencing)Relationship Management (Knowing how to use emotions – emotionally sensitive – in the ways we communicate with others to build rapport and motivate them)