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English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech

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1 English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech
Phonetics COMD Taylor English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech

2 Transcription Practice
[əˈdʒʌst] [ɪmˈplɔɪ] [ˈbʊkɪŋ] [ˈfæntm̩] [ɡɪˈtaɹ] [ˈluzɚ] [təˈɹeɪn] [tɚˈeɪn] [ˈkɑfi] [ˈðɛɹfɔɹ] [ˈkɔfi] [ˈlɪsn̩] [ˈstɹʌkʃɚ] [ˈfaʊntn̩] [ˈʃtɹʌkʃɚ] [ˈpitsa]

3 Word form and phonetic reduction
Citation (reading lists) at least one stressed syllable (full form) Connected speech sometimes no syllable in a particular word is stressed (all sounds are reduced) degree of reduction (variance from full form) depends on degree of emphasis Q: what sorts of things get emphasized in conversation? (topics, e.g.) How does this sound?

4 Closed-class words and reduction
Strong form when emphasized Weak form when not emphasized CC words (determiners, conjunctions, prepositions, verb auxiliaries, etc.) are rarely emphasized “than,” “the,” “an,” “can” “gonna” / “gon”

5 Other common phonetic processes
Deletion 'last time' [læst taɪm] or [læs taɪm] ? 'most boys' [moʊst bɔɪz] or [moʊs bɔɪz] ? Assimilation Anticipatory 'ten bucks' [tɛm bʌks] Perseverative 'it is'  'it's' [ɪt ɪz] [ɪts]

6 Stress Word stress varies depending on occurrence
Citation form vs connected speech Examples? “Would you?” “THAT’S my umbrella.” vs “that’s MY umbrella!” Stress is a relative concept Why do we say that?

7 How do we determine stress?
From speaker's point of view: usually results from additional muscular effort, respiratory energy Hard to define from listener's point of view usually higher pitch (but not always) vowel is usually longer in duration In practical terms: tap it out

8 What does stress do in English?
emphasizes/contrasts can define parts of speech 'record', 'incline', etc. BUT: 'market' vs “Marquette” distinguishes compound nouns from adjective and noun 'blackboard' vs. 'black board' distinguishes prefixes and suffixes from roots 'implore', etc. 'rewrite'?

9 Degrees of stress Longer words at the end of utterances and in citation form may seem to have more than one stressed syllable primary vs secondary stress? 'exploration' result of non-reduced vowels? 'rodeo'

10 Sentence rhythm As a rule, English does not allow stresses too close together in an utterance stresses tend to occur at regular intervals affects stress within individual words 'The ancient building hadn't been destroyed.'

11 Intonation Intonation = pattern of pitch changes
Pitch variation within an utterance is normal try saying a sentence without changing pitch degree depends on a number of factors the syllable that carries the highest pitch bears the tonic accent

12 Intonation units do not necessarily coincide with grammar
are defined by natural breaks in spoken conversation do not have a set rule for determination

13 IUs Example (H) ... I would like to .. talk to you about these three items. I have here, (H) some ice in a pan, (H) water in this glass, and steam rising from this pot. (H) .. Now=. I would like to ask you, how these three things. Tell me please. (H) How are they all alike. (H) These three things.

14 Sentence intonation varies with meaning is used in English to indicate
‘The postman always rings twice.’ Say it straight, say it as a wisenheimer lol is used in English to indicate Y/N questions end of a turn

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