Presentation on theme: "English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech"— Presentation transcript:
1 English Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech Phonetics COMD TaylorEnglish Words and Sentences: Words in Connected Speech
2 Transcription Practice [əˈdʒʌst][ɪmˈplɔɪ][ˈbʊkɪŋ][ˈfæntm̩][ɡɪˈtaɹ][ˈluzɚ][təˈɹeɪn] [tɚˈeɪn][ˈkɑfi][ˈðɛɹfɔɹ][ˈkɔfi][ˈlɪsn̩][ˈstɹʌkʃɚ][ˈfaʊntn̩][ˈʃtɹʌkʃɚ][ˈpitsa]
3 Word form and phonetic reduction Citation (reading lists)at least one stressed syllable (full form)Connected speechsometimes no syllable in a particular word is stressed (all sounds are reduced)degree of reduction (variance from full form) depends on degree of emphasisQ: what sorts of things get emphasized in conversation? (topics, e.g.) How does this sound?
4 Closed-class words and reduction Strong form when emphasizedWeak form when not emphasizedCC words (determiners, conjunctions, prepositions, verb auxiliaries, etc.)are rarely emphasized“than,” “the,” “an,” “can” “gonna” / “gon”
5 Other common phonetic processes Deletion'last time' [læst taɪm] or [læs taɪm] ?'most boys' [moʊst bɔɪz] or [moʊs bɔɪz] ?AssimilationAnticipatory'ten bucks' [tɛm bʌks]Perseverative'it is' 'it's' [ɪt ɪz] [ɪts]
6 Stress Word stress varies depending on occurrence Citation form vs connected speechExamples?“Would you?”“THAT’S my umbrella.” vs “that’s MY umbrella!”Stress is a relative conceptWhy do we say that?
7 How do we determine stress? From speaker's point of view:usually results from additional muscular effort, respiratory energyHard to define from listener's point of viewusually higher pitch (but not always)vowel is usually longer in durationIn practical terms: tap it out
8 What does stress do in English? emphasizes/contrastscan define parts of speech'record', 'incline', etc.BUT: 'market' vs “Marquette”distinguishes compound nouns from adjective and noun'blackboard' vs. 'black board'distinguishes prefixes and suffixes from roots'implore', etc.'rewrite'?
9 Degrees of stressLonger words at the end of utterances and in citation form may seem to have more than one stressed syllableprimary vs secondary stress?'exploration'result of non-reduced vowels?'rodeo'
10 Sentence rhythmAs a rule, English does not allow stresses too close together in an utterancestresses tend to occur at regular intervalsaffects stress within individual words'The ancient building hadn't been destroyed.'
11 Intonation Intonation = pattern of pitch changes Pitch variation within an utterance is normaltry saying a sentence without changing pitchdegree depends on a number of factorsthe syllable that carries the highest pitch bears the tonic accent
12 Intonation units do not necessarily coincide with grammar are defined by natural breaks in spoken conversationdo not have a set rule for determination
13 IUs Example(H) ... I would like to .. talk to you about these three items.I have here,(H) some ice in a pan,(H) water in this glass,and steam rising from this pot.(H) .. Now=.I would like to ask you,how these three things.Tell me please.(H) How are they all alike.(H) These three things.
14 Sentence intonation varies with meaning is used in English to indicate ‘The postman always rings twice.’Say it straight, say it as a wisenheimer lolis used in English to indicateY/N questionsend of a turn