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Heterogeneity Applies to all of the following:

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1 Heterogeneity Applies to all of the following:
networks Internet protocols mask the differences between networks computer hardware e.g. data types such as integers can be represented differently operating systems e.g. the API to IP differs from one OS to another programming languages data structures (arrays, records) can be represented differently implementations by different developers they need agreed standards so as to be able to interwork Middleware provides a programming abstraction and masks the heterogeneity of networks etc.

2 Middleware layers Applications RMI, RPC and events Middleware layers
Programming model RMI, RPC and events Middleware layers Request reply protocol External data representation Interprocess communication Operating System

3 Chapter 5: Middleware programming models
Procedure call model via remote procedure call (RPC) E.g. Sun RPC Object-based model via remote method invocation (RMI) E.g. Java RMI or CORBA Event-based model via remote event notification E.g. Jini distributed event specification Other: remote SQL access distributed transaction processing

4 Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary Discuss UDP and TCP from a programmer’s point of view UDP provides a message passing abstraction TCP provides the abstraction of a two-way stream Java interface, UNIX Socket marshalling and demarshalling data form translation Client-Server communication Request-Reply protocols Java RMI, RPC Group communication

5 Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary

6 The characteristics of interprocess communication
Synchronous and asynchronous a queue associated with message destination, Sending process add message to remote queue, Receiving process remove message from local queue Synchronous: send and receive are blocking operations asynchronous: send is unblocking, receive could be blocking or unblocking (receive notification by polling or interrupt) Message destination Internet address + local port service name: help by name service at run time location independent identifiers, e.g. in Mach Reliability validity: messages are guaranteed to be delivered despite a reasonable number of packets being dropped or lost Integrity: messages arrive uncorrupted and without duplication Ordering the messages be delivered in sender order

7 Socket Endpoint for communication between processes
Both forms of communication (UDP and TCP ) use the socket abstraction Originate from BSD Unix, be present in most versions of UNIX be bound to a local port (216 possible port number) and one of the Internet address a process cannot share ports with other processes on the same computer message agreed port any port socket Internet address = Internet address = other ports client server

8 UDP datagram communication
UDP datagrams are sent without acknowledgement or retries Issues relating to datagram communication Message size: not bigger than 64k in size, otherwise truncated on arrival blocking: non-blocking sends (message could be discarded at destination if there is not a socket bound to the port ) and blocking receives (could be timeout) Timeout: receiver set on socket Receive from any: not specify an origin for messages Failure model omission failure: message be dropped due to checksum error or no buffer space at sender side or receiver side ordering: message be delivered out of sender order application maintains the reliability of UDP communication channel by itself

9 Java API for UDP datagrams (skip)
DatagramPacket DatagramSocket send and receive : transmit datagram between a pair of sockets setSoTimeout : receive method will block for the time specified and then throw an InterruptedIOexception connect: connect to a particular remote port and Internet address Examples be acceptable to services that are liable to occasional omission failures, e.g. DNS

10 UDP client sends a message to the server and gets a reply (skip)
import*; import*; public class UDPClient{ public static void main(String args[]){ // args give message contents and server hostname DatagramSocket aSocket = null; try { aSocket = new DatagramSocket(); byte [] m = args[0].getBytes(); InetAddress aHost = InetAddress.getByName(args[1]); int serverPort = 6789; DatagramPacket request = new DatagramPacket(m, args[0].length(), aHost, serverPort); aSocket.send(request); byte[] buffer = new byte[1000]; DatagramPacket reply = new DatagramPacket(buffer, buffer.length); aSocket.receive(reply); System.out.println("Reply: " + new String(reply.getData())); }catch (SocketException e){System.out.println("Socket: " + e.getMessage()); }catch (IOException e){System.out.println("IO: " + e.getMessage());} }finally {if(aSocket != null) aSocket.close();} }

11 UDP server repeatedly receives a request and sends it back to the client (skip)
import*; import*; public class UDPServer{ public static void main(String args[]){ DatagramSocket aSocket = null; try{ aSocket = new DatagramSocket(6789); byte[] buffer = new byte[1000]; while(true){ DatagramPacket request = new DatagramPacket(buffer, buffer.length); aSocket.receive(request); DatagramPacket reply = new DatagramPacket(request.getData(), request.getLength(), request.getAddress(), request.getPort()); aSocket.send(reply); } }catch (SocketException e){System.out.println("Socket: " + e.getMessage()); }catch (IOException e) {System.out.println("IO: " + e.getMessage());} }finally {if(aSocket != null) aSocket.close();}

12 TCP stream communication
The API to the TCP provide the abstraction of a stream of bytes to which data may be written and from which data may be read Hidden network characteristics message sizes lost messages flow control message duplication and ordering message destinations issues related to stream communication Matching of data items: agree to the contents of the transmitted data Blocking: send blocked until the data is written in the receiver’s buffer, receive blocked until the data in the local buffer becomes available Threads: server create a new thread when it accept a connection

13 TCP stream communication … continued
failure model integrity and validity have been achieved by checksum, sequence number, timeout and retransmission in TCP protocol connection could be broken due to unknown failures Can’t distinguish between network failure and the destination process failure Can’t tell whether its recent messages have been received or not

14 Java API for TCP Streams (skip)
ServerSocket accept: listen for connect requests from clients Socket constructor not only create a socket associated with a local port, but also connect it to the specified remote computer and port number getInputStream getOutputStream Examples

15 TCP client makes connection to server, sends request and receives reply
import*; import*; public class TCPClient { public static void main (String args[]) { // arguments supply message and hostname of destination Socket s = null; try{ int serverPort = 7896; s = new Socket(args[1], serverPort); DataInputStream in = new DataInputStream( s.getInputStream()); DataOutputStream out = new DataOutputStream( s.getOutputStream()); out.writeUTF(args[0]); // UTF is a string encoding see Sn 4.3 String data = in.readUTF(); System.out.println("Received: "+ data) ; }catch (UnknownHostException e){ System.out.println("Sock:"+e.getMessage()); }catch (EOFException e){System.out.println("EOF:"+e.getMessage()); }catch (IOException e){System.out.println("IO:"+e.getMessage());} }finally {if(s!=null) try {s.close();}catch (IOException e){System.out.println("close:"+e.getMessage());}} }

16 TCP server makes a connection for each client and then echoes the client’s request
import*; import*; public class TCPServer { public static void main (String args[]) { try{ int serverPort = 7896; ServerSocket listenSocket = new ServerSocket(serverPort); while(true) { Socket clientSocket = listenSocket.accept(); Connection c = new Connection(clientSocket); } } catch(IOException e) {System.out.println("Listen :"+e.getMessage());} // this figure continues on the next slide

17 TCP Server … continued class Connection extends Thread {
DataInputStream in; DataOutputStream out; Socket clientSocket; public Connection (Socket aClientSocket) { try { clientSocket = aClientSocket; in = new DataInputStream( clientSocket.getInputStream()); out =new DataOutputStream( clientSocket.getOutputStream()); this.start(); } catch(IOException e) {System.out.println("Connection:"+e.getMessage());} } public void run(){ try { // an echo server String data = in.readUTF(); out.writeUTF(data); } catch(EOFException e) {System.out.println("EOF:"+e.getMessage()); } catch(IOException e) {System.out.println("IO:"+e.getMessage());} } finally{ try {clientSocket.close();}catch (IOException e){/*close failed*/}}

18 Chapter 3: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary

19 External data representation and marshalling introduction
Why does the communication data need external data representation and marshalling? Different data format on different computers, e.g., big-endian/little-endian integer order, ASCII (Unix) / Unicode character coding How to enable any two computers to exchange data values? The values be converted to an agreed external format before transmission and converted to the local form on receipt The values are transmitted in the sender’s format, together with an indication of the format used, and the receipt converts the value if necessary External data representation An agreed standard for the representation of data structures and primitive values Marshalling (unmarshalling) The process of taking a collection of data items and assembling them into a form suitable for transmission in a message Usage: for data transmission or storing in files Two alternative approaches CORBA’s common data representation / Java’s object serialization

20 CORBA’s Common Data Representation (CDR)
Represent all of the data types that can be used as arguments and return values in remote invocations in CORBA 15 primitive types Short (16bit), long(32bit), unsigned short, unsigned long, float, char, … Constructed types Types that composed by several primitive types A message example The type of a data item is not given with the data representation in message It is assumed that the sender and recipient have common knowledge of the order and types of the data items in a message. For RMI and RPC, each method invocation passes arguments of particular types, and the result is a value of a particular type.

21 CORBA CDR for constructed types
Re pr s n ta t i o q ue ce l g th ( u si ed ) fo ll ow b el m nt r d ri ch a ra c te rs n o ca al so h av w de rs) rr ay le s i r ( o l en h s ci f ie d b eca us is x ru ct n t he or r o la at co mp v s a re pe y t r d ec ar ni g f we e s cte d m mb er

22 CORBA CDR message index in notes sequence of bytes 4 bytes
Struct Person { string name; string place; long year; }; index in notes sequence of bytes 4 bytes on representation length of string 0–3 5 4–7 "Smit" ‘Smith’ "h___" 8–11 12–15 6 length of string 16–19 "Lond" ‘London’ "on__" 20-23 24–27 1934 unsigned long The flattened form represents a Person struct with value: {‘Smith’, ‘London’, 1934}

23 Java object serialization
Serialization (deserialization) The activity of flattening an object or a connected set of objects into a serial form that is suitable for storing on the disk or transmitting in a message Include information about the class of each object and a version number Handles: references to other objects are serialized as handles Each object is written once only Example (n1) Make use of Java serialization ObjectOutputStream.writeObject, ObjectInputStream.readObject The use of reflection Reflection : The ability to enquire about the properties of a class, and also enables classes to be created from their properties. Reflection makes it possible to do serialization (deserialization) in a completely generic manner

24 Indication of Java serialized form
Public class Person implements Serializable { private String name; private String place; private int year; public Person (String aName, String aPlace, int aYear){ name = aName; place = aPlace; year = aYear; } // followed by methods for accessing the instance variables Person p = new Person(“Smith”, “London”, 1934); The true serialized form contains additional type markers; h0 and h1 are handles Serialized values Person 3 1934 8-byte version number int year 5 Smith java.lang.String name: 6 London h0 place: h1 Explanation class name, version number number, type and name of instance variables values of instance variables

25 Remote object reference
An identifier for a remote object that is valid throughout a distributed system Representation of a remote reference a remote object reference must be unique in the distributed system and over time. It should not be reused after the object is deleted. Why not? the first two fields locate the object unless migration or re-activation in a new process can happen the fourth field identifies the object within the process its interface tells the receiver what methods it has (e.g. class Method) a remote object reference is created by a remote reference module when a reference is passed as argument or result to another process it will be stored in the corresponding proxy it will be passed in request messages to identify the remote object whose method is to be invoked Internet address port number time object number interface of remote object 32 bits

26 Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary

27 The request – reply protocol
Overheads associated with the TCP protocol Acknowledgements are redundant since requests are followed by replies Establishing a connection involves two extra pairs of messages in addition to the pair required for a request and a reply Flow control is redundant for the majority of invocations, which pass only small arguments and results Request-reply message structure requestID: prevent duplicated request and delayed reply Message identifiers A requestID An identifier for the sender process, e.g. its port and Internet address

28 Request-reply communication
Server Client doOperation (wait) (continuation) Reply message getRequest execute method select object sendReply public byte[] doOperation (RemoteObjectRef o, int methodId, byte[] arguments) sends a request message to the remote object and returns the reply. The arguments specify the remote object, the method to be invoked and the arguments of that method. public byte[] getRequest (); acquires a client request via the server port. public void sendReply (byte[] reply, InetAddress clientHost, int clientPort); sends the reply message reply to the client at its Internet address and port.

29 Request-reply message structure
messageType requestId objectReference methodId arguments int (0=Request, 1= Reply) int RemoteObjectRef int or Method array of bytes

30 The request – reply protocol … continued
Failure model Timeout doOperation return exception when repeatedly issued requests are all timeout Duplicate request messages: filter out duplicates by requestID if the server has not yet sent the reply, transmit the reply after finishing operation execution If the server has already sent the reply, execute the operation again to obtain the result. Note idempotent operation, e.g., add an element to a set, and a contrary example, append an item to a sequence History: server contains a record of reply messages that have been transmitted to avoid re-execution of operations Implement the request-reply protocol on TCP Costly, but no need for the request-reply protocol to deal with retransmission and filtering Successive requests and replies can use the same stream to reduce connection overhead

31 HTTP: an example of a request – reply protocol
Over TCP Each client-server interaction consists of the following steps The client requests and the server accepts a connection at the default server port or at a port specified in the URL The client sends a request message to the server The server sends a reply message to the client The connection is closed Persistent connection Connections that remain open over a series of request-reply exchanges between client and server Marshalling Request and replies are marshalled into messages as ASCII text string Resources are represented as byte sequences and may be compressed HTTP Methods GET, HEAD, POST, PUT, DELETE, OPTIONS, TRACE HTTP Request and reply messages

32 HTTP request / reply messages
GET HTTP/ 1.1 URL or pathname method HTTP version headers message body HTTP/1.1 200 OK resource data HTTP version status code reason headers message body

33 Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary

34 Fault tolerance based on replicated services
The usage of Multicast Fault tolerance based on replicated services Client request are multicast to all the members of the group, each of which performs an identical operation Finding the discovery servers in spontaneous networking Multicast message can be used by servers and clients to locate available discovery services to register their interfaces or to look up the interfaces of other services Better performance through replicated data Data are replicated to increase the performance of a service, e.g., Web Cache. Each time the data changes, the new value is multicast to the processes managing the replicas Propagation of event notification Multicast to a group may be used to notify processes when something happens, e.g., the Jini system uses multicast to inform interested clients when new lookup services advertise their existence

35 IP Multicast – an implementation of group communication
A multicast group is specified by a class D Internet address Built on top of IP Available only via UDP The membership of a group is dynamic It is possible to send datagram to a multicast group without being a member IPv4 Multicast routers use the broadcast capability of the local network MTTL - specify the number of routers a multicast message is allowed to pass Multicast address allocation Permanent group – to Temporary group – the other addresses, set TTL to a small value Failure model: due to UDP, so it is a unreliable multicast Java API to IP multicast

36 Multicast peer joins a group and sends and receives datagrams
import*; import*; public class MulticastPeer{ public static void main(String args[]){ // args give message contents & destination multicast group (e.g. " ") MulticastSocket s =null; try { InetAddress group = InetAddress.getByName(args[1]); s = new MulticastSocket(6789); s.joinGroup(group); byte [] m = args[0].getBytes(); DatagramPacket messageOut = new DatagramPacket(m, m.length, group, 6789); s.send(messageOut); // this figure continued on the next slide

37 Multicast peers example… continued
// get messages from others in group byte[] buffer = new byte[1000]; for(int i=0; i< 3; i++) { DatagramPacket messageIn = new DatagramPacket(buffer, buffer.length); s.receive(messageIn); System.out.println("Received:" + new String(messageIn.getData())); } s.leaveGroup(group); }catch (SocketException e){System.out.println("Socket: " + e.getMessage()); }catch (IOException e){System.out.println("IO: " + e.getMessage());} }finally {if(s != null) s.close();}

38 Reliability and ordering of multicast
Failures Omission failures (at chapter 2) Ordering issue Some examples of the effects of reliability and ordering Fault tolerance based on replicated services if one of them misses a request, it will become inconsistent with the others Finding the discovery servers in spontaneous networking an occasional lost request is not an issue when locating a discovery server Reliable multicast or unreliable multicast? According to application’s requirement

39 Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary

40 Datagram communication
UNIX socket Datagram communication Datagram Socket Bind Sendto recvfrom Stream communication stream socket , bind Accept Connect Write and read

41 Sockets used for datagrams
ServerAddress and ClientAddress are socket addresses Sending a message Receiving a message bind(s, ClientAddress) sendto(s, "message", ServerAddress) bind(s, ServerAddress) amount = recvfrom(s, buffer, from) s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)

42 Sockets used for streams
Requesting a connection Listening and accepting a connection bind(s, ServerAddress); listen(s,5); sNew = accept(s, ClientAddress); n = read(sNew, buffer, amount) s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM,0) connect(s, ServerAddress) write(s, "message", length) ServerAddress and ClientAddress are socket addresses

43 Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication
Introduction The API for the Internet protocols External data representation and marshalling Client-Server communication Group communication Case study: interprocess communication in UNIX Summary

44 Two alternative building blocks
Summary Two alternative building blocks Datagram Socket: based on UDP, efficient but suffer from failures Stream Socket: based on TCP, reliable but expensive Marshalling CORBA’s CDR and Java serialization Request-Reply protocol Base on UDP or TCP Multicast IP multicast is a simple multicast protocol


46 Exercise 4.1 Is it conceivably useful for a port to have several receivers? page 128

47 Exercise 4.2 A server creates a port which it uses to receive requests from clients. Discuss the design issues concerning the relationship between the name of this port and the names used by clients. page 128

48 Exercise 4.3 The programs in Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4 are available at Use them to make a test kit to determine the conditions in which datagrams are sometimes dropped. Hint: the client program should be able to vary the number of messages sent and their size; the server should detect when a message from a particular client is missed. page 130

49 Exercise 4.4 Use the program in Figure 4.3 to make a client program that repeatedly reads a line of input from the user, sends it to the server in a UDP datagram message, then receives a message from the server. The client sets a timeout on its socket so that it can inform the user when the server does not reply. Test this client program with the server in Figure 4.4. page 130

50 Exercise 4.5 The programs in Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.6 are available at Modify them so that the client repeatedly takes a line of user’s input and writes it to the stream and the server reads repeatedly from the stream, printing out the result of each read. Make a comparison between sending data in UDP datagram messages and over a stream. page 134

51 Exercise 4.6 Use the programs developed in Exercise 4.5 to test the effect on the sender when the receiver crashes and vice-versa. page 134

52 Exercise 4.7 Sun XDR marshals data by converting it into a standard big-endian form before transmission. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method when compared with CORBA’s CDR. page 140

53 Exercise 4.8 Sun XDR aligns each primitive value on a four byte boundary, whereas CORBA CDR aligns a primitive value of size n on an n-byte boundary. Discuss the trade-offs in choosing the sizes occupied by primitive values. page 140

54 Exercise 4.9 Why is there no explicit data-typing in CORBA CDR?
page 140

55 Exercise 4.10 Write an algorithm in pseudocode to describe the serialization procedure described in Section The algorithm should show when handles are defined or substituted for classes and instances. Describe the serialized form that your algorithm would produce when serializing an instance of the following class Couple. class Couple implements Serializable{ private Person one; private Person two; public Couple(Person a, Person b) { one = a; two = b; } } page 142

56 Exercise 4.11 Write an algorithm in pseudocode to describe deserialization of the serialized form produced by the algorithm defined in Exercise Hint: use reflection to create a class from its name, to create a constructor from its parameter types and to create a new instance of an object from the constructor and the argument values. page 142

57 Exercise 4.12 Define a class whose instances represent remote object references. It should contain information similar to that shown in Figure 4.10 and should provide access methods needed by the request-reply protocol. Explain how each of the access methods will be used by that protocol. Give a justification for the type chosen for the instance variable containing information about the interface of the remote object. page 144

58 Exercise 4.13 Define a class whose instances represent request and reply messages as illustrated in Figure The class should provide a pair of constructors, one for request messages and the other for reply messages, showing how the request identifier is assigned. It should also provide a method to marshal itself into an array of bytes and to unmarshal an array of bytes into an instance. page 144

59 Exercise 4.14 Program each of the three operations of the request-reply protocol in Figure 4.12, using UDP communication, but without adding any fault-tolerance measures. You should use the classes you defined in Exercise 4.12 and Exercise 4.13. page 146

60 Exercise 4.15 Give an outline of the server implementation showing how the operations getRequest and sendReply are used by a server that creates a new thread to execute each client request. Indicate how the server will copy the requestId from the request message into the reply message and how it will obtain the client IP address and port. page 146

61 Exercise 4.16 Define a new version of the doOperation method that sets a timeout on waiting for the reply message. After a timeout, it retransmits the request message n times. If there is still no reply, it informs the caller. page 148

62 Exercise 4.17 Describe a scenario in which a client could receive a reply from an earlier call. page 146

63 Exercise 4.18 Describe the ways in which the request-reply protocol masks the heterogeneity of operating systems and of computer networks. page 146

64 Exercise 4.19 Discuss whether the following operations are idempotent:
• Pressing a lift (elevator) request button; • Writing data to a file; • Appending data to a file. Is it a necessary condition for idempotence that the operation should not be associated with any state? page 148

65 Exercise 4.20 Explain the design choices that are relevant to minimizing the amount of reply data held at a server. Compare the storage requirements when the RR and RRA protocols are used. page 148

66 Exercise 4.21 Assume the RRA protocol is in use. How long should servers retain unacknowledged reply data? Should servers repeatedly send the reply in an attempt to receive an acknowledgement? page 148

67 Exercise 4.22 Why might the number of messages exchanged in a protocol be more significant to performance than the total amount of data sent? Design a variant of the RRA protocol in which the acknowledgement is piggy-backed on, that is, transmitted in the same message as, the next request where appropriate, and otherwise sent as a separate message. (Hint: use an extra timer in the client.) page 148

68 Exercise 4.23 IP multicast provides a service that suffers from omission failures. Make a test kit, possibly based on the program in Figure 4.17, to discover the conditions under which a multicast message is sometimes dropped by one of the members of the multicast group. The test kit should be designed to allow for multiple sending processes. page 154

69 Exercise 4.24 Outline the design of a scheme that uses message retransmissions with IP multicast to overcome the problem of dropped messages. Your scheme should take the following points into account: i) there may be multiple senders; ii) generally only a small proportion of messages are dropped; iii) unlike the request-reply protocol, recipients may not necessarily send a message within any particular time limit. Assume that messages that are not dropped arrive in sender ordering. page 157

70 Exercise 4.25 Your solution to Exercise 4.24 should have overcome the problem of dropped messages in IP multicast. In what sense does your solution differ from the definition of reliable multicast? page 157

71 Exercise 4.26 Devise a scenario in which multicasts sent by different clients are delivered in different orders at two group members. Assume that some form of message retransmissions are in use, but that messages that are not dropped arrive in sender ordering. Suggest how recipients might remedy this situation. page 157

72 Exercise 4.27 Define the semantics for and design a protocol for a group form of request-reply interaction, for example using IP multicast. pages 146, 154

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