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1 Welcome! We’ll be starting the Live Broadcast shortly. During The Live BroadcastThe presenter’s voice will be broadcast through your computer’s speakers, so please make sure your computer’s volume is on.The presentation will last about 15 minutes, and the rest of the time will be reserved for your questions.To ask questions, please type them at any time in the Chat box on the left of this screen.After the Live BroadcastWe will post the slides and the recording of this presentation on our blog and will you the link to it.We will be happy to field any of your further questions at or1
2 How Meaning Takes Shape English MorphologyHow Meaning Takes Shape
4 defining morphology“the study of word formation, or how morphemes combine to form words” (Soifer)“morphology is to words what syntax is to sentences the internal structure of words” (Parker & Riley)“the spelling-meaning connection” (Templeton)
6 defining morphemes “the smallest meaningful units in language” (Moats) “more or less constant meaning associated with more or less constant form” (Parkey & Riley)“a unit of grammar smaller than the word” (Matthews)“an indivisible unit of meaning” (Ebbers)
7 ‘not divisible into smaller morphemes’ defining morphemesmorphemeeme‘minimaldistinctive unit’‘form, shape’morphgraphphonelex‘not able to be further reduced without losing or changing its meaning’‘not divisible into smaller morphemes’
9 orthographic morphology Orthographyrepresentingsense andmeaningis a term that refers toa conventional writing systemspecific to only one languageby which those who know and speak the language represent its sense and meaning to themselveshuman thought made visible as text
10 morphology structure and sequencing orthographicmorphologyOrthographyrepresentingsense andmeaningmorphology structure and sequencingof meaningetymologyinterrelationof sense and meaningphonologyunits ofspeech that construct meaningThe other concepts, especially phonology, cannot be properly understood independently of morphological structure and framework.Orthographic phonology is subject to morphological boundaries.human thought made visible as text
11 morphology structure and sequencing orthographicmorphologyOrthographymorphology structure and sequencingof meaningthe organizing, delimiting and defining conceptNo grapheme or other orthographic unit can cross or straddle a morphemic boundary.Morphological analysis is essential to all orthographic investigation.
13 written morphemes A written morpheme is called an orthographic element An element is a basic or indivisible unit, a primary, unanalyzable constituent.
14 Every word has a base element. writtenmorphemesEvery word has a base element.elementsbaseaffixThere are two categories of elements: [CLICK] bases, and [CLICK] affixes.[CLICK] Every word has a base element. Many words are comprised only of a single base element. And many words have affixes, or more than one base, or both.
15 written morphemes elements base affix Affixes are always bound. free Okay, so what we just saw in those examples included bases, and affixes.The affixes we saw included prefixes [CLICK] -- like <mis> and <un> -- and suffixes [CLICK] -- like <ing> and <ed>. We’ll talk more about these in a moment.The bases we saw -- <spell> and <check>, are free. [CLICK] Free bases are words all by themselves, can stand alone. They may be further grouped into two types [CLICK]: lexical and grammatical. (Briefly define -- lexical carries meaning all by itself; grammatical carries relational meaning). We’ll return to this distinction later.There is also, however, another kind of base element. They carry lexical meaning, but they cannot stand on their own. They are [CLICK] bound.Affixes [CLICK] are always bound.Just as free bases can be grammatical or lexical, English suffixes can carry [CLICK] grammatical--or inflectional--information, or lexical--or derivational--information. Inflectional affixes are a closed class, and they apply to whole words – either free bases or stems. Derivational suffixes vary: some may affix to bound or free bases or stems. Create a whole new ‘word’.[CLICK] to diffuse balloonfreeboundprefixsuffixlexicalgrammaticalderivationalinflectionalnounsverbsadjectivesadverbspronounsaux.verbsprepositionsconjunctionsarticles<ness><ment><ion><ful><ly> <ic> . . .<s><ing><ed><(e)n><er><est>
16 written morphemes synthetic word sums <spell> + <check>→ <spellcheck><mis> + <spell> + <ing>→ <misspelling><un> + <check> + <ed>→ <unchecked>
17 written morphemes analytic word sums <haphazard> <mishap>→ <mis> + <hap><unhappy>→ <un> + <hap> + <y><haphazard>→ <hap> + <hazard>
18 investigating word structure writtenmorphemesinvestigating word structure<artist>→ <art> + <ist><artfully>→ <art> + <ful> + <ly><artifact>→ <art> + <i> + <fact>
19 written morphemes elements base affix free bound prefix connector suffixlexicalgrammaticalinflectionalderivationalA connector is a vowel letter that can connect a base or suffix to another base or suffix.
20 written morphemes actual special linear evacuate equinox sacrifice connectoractualspeciallinearevacuateequinoxsacrificedictatorialphonologygeometryA connector is a vowel letter that can connect a base or suffix to another base or suffix.Do word sums here.
21 “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.” Occam’s RazorWilliam Ockham created a theory, that later was designate as: Ockham’s razor. The theory is in latin: «pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate».When there are several explications for some phenomenon,you have to choose the simplest and easiest explication (although it isn’t always correct, you don’t have to create more explanations).The principle states "Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily." Sometimes it is quoted in one of its original Latin forms to give it an air of authenticity:"Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate"English: "plurality should not be posited without necessity."“Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”