Presentation on theme: "LGB&T History Month Prepared by Gloria Wallace, Fellow of Suffolk New College 1 February 2011."— Presentation transcript:
1 LGB&T History MonthPrepared by Gloria Wallace, Fellow of Suffolk New College1 February 2011
2 LESBIAN, GAY, BYSEXUAL & TRANSGENDER LGB&T HistoryLESBIAN, GAY, BYSEXUAL & TRANSGENDERLGB&TPrepared by Gloria Wallace 1st February 2011
3 HomosexualThe word homosexual literally means "same sex", being a hybrid from Greek and Latin.The Greek word “homos” literally translated means "same”.(not related to the Latin homo, 'man', as in Homo sapiens)The Medieval Latin word “sexualis” (from Classical Latin sexus) means "sexual“.Homosexual relates to relationships between members of the same sex, including lesbianism.The word "lesbian" is derived from the name of theGreek island Lesbos.The poet Sappho wrote her famous love poems to young women,providing the inspiration for the word lesbian.Lesbianism refers only to female homosexuality.Sappho of Lesbos, depicted in an 1904painting by John William Godward
4 Gay.The word "gay" arrived in English during the 12th century from Old French gai,in English, the word's primary meaning was "joyful“ and "carefree“.The word Gay had started to acquire associations of immorality by 1637,the Oxford English Dictionary gives one meaning as "addicted to social pleasures and dissipations”.By the late 17th centuryA gay woman was a prostituteA gay man was a womanizerA gay house was a brothelCartoon from Punch magazine in 1857 illustrating the use of "gay" as a euphemism for being a prostitute.One woman says to the other (who looks glum),"How long have you been gay?"The poster on the wall is for La Traviata,an opera about a courtesan.
5 “Good As You”The 1890s are still often referred to as the Gay Nineties.The use of gay to mean "homosexual" was originally merely an extension of the word's sexualised connotation of "carefree and uninhibited",a willingness to disregard conventional sexual values.It was apparently not until the 20th century that the word Gay began to be used to mean specifically "homosexual“.It has nevertheless been claimed that gay stands for"Good As You",but there is no evidence for this.Through the mid 20th century,the term "gay" commonly referred to "carefree",as illustrated in the Astaire and Rogers filmThe Gay Divorcee.
7 He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated. Timeline966 –The Republic of Poland was established, homosexuality was never criminalized throughout its history.An eleventh century Byzantine treaty clarifies that homosexual unions are known and legal within the Byzantine society.1250–1300 – Homosexual activity radically passes from being completely legal in the most of Europe to incurring the death penalty in most European states.John Rykener, was a 14th-century transvestite prostitute working mainly in London.He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated.The only surviving legal records from that age which mentions same-sex intercourse.Rykener claimed to have had many clients including priests and monks, he revealed that one Franciscan friar had given him a gold ring.1483 – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned.Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy.
8 Transgender1577 King Henry III of France frequently cross dressed and while dressed as a womanwas referred to as her majesty by his courtiers.Even his male clothes were consideredoutrageous despite the flamboyant standards of 16th-century France.1654 Queen Christina of Sweden (often considered bisexual) abdicated the thrown, dressed in men's clothing and renamed herself Count Dohna.1673 French explorers Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette came into contact with the Illini Indians in 1673, and were astonished to discover a subset of Illini men who dressed and acted out the social role of women.1676 Male to Female transsexual Abbe Francois Timoleon de Choisy attended Papal inaugural ball in female dress. His memoirs, published post-mortem, offer the first written testimony of cross-dressing.
9 Clap's Molly HouseMargaret Clap better known as Mother Clap, ran a coffee housefrom 1724 to 1726 that served as a molly house for theunderground gay community in Holborn, LondonUnlike other molly houses it was not a brothel,Clap's intentions may have been based more upon pleasure than profit,judging by her goodwill towards her customers.A Molly House is a 18th century English term fora tavern or private room,where homosexual and cross-dressing men could meet.Molly houses were found in most of the larger cities,a precursor to the modern gay bar.In 18th century England, a "molly" referred to an effeminate male.
10 Sodomy Sodomy in law is the act of "unnatural" sex, whether heterosexual or homosexual.John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute; his proctor John Childe was also hanged. Anonymous pamphlet, 1641.1721 – Catherina Margaretha Linck lesbian is beheadedfor female sodomy in Germany.The last known execution for lesbianism in Europe.1791 – Revolutionary France becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults.1794 – The Kingdom of Prussia abolishes the death penalty for sodomy.1785 – Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England.
11 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs 1867 Karl Heinrich Ulrichs became the first self-proclaimed homosexual to speak out publicly for homosexual rights.He pleaded at the Congress of German Jurists in Munich for a resolution urging the repeal of anti-homosexual laws.Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825–1895),a pioneer of LGBT rights1828 – The term "Crime against nature" first used in the Criminal code in the United States.1830 – Brazil decriminalizes homosexual acts;The word asexual is used as a term for the first time in biology.1836 – The last known execution for homosexuality in Great Britain.1869 – The term "homosexuality" appears in print for the first time in a German-Hungarian pamphlet written by Karl-Maria Kertbeny. He was an Austrian-born Hungarian journalist, memoirist and human rights campaigner who coined the words heterosexual and homosexual.Karl-Maria Kertbeny, ca. 1865
12 Natalie Clifford Barney 31 October 1876 – 2 February 1972 American playwright, poet and novelist who lived as an expatriate in Paris,she knew by age 12 she was a lesbian.She was determined to "live openly, without hiding anything.“1899 Barney presented herself as a "page of love" sent by Sappho toCourtesan Liane de Pougy at her residence.She was charmed by Barney's audacity and they had a brief affair.Natalie Clifford Barney, painted in 1896by her mother Alice Pike Barney.1899 Barney met the poet Pauline Tarn, better know as Renée Vivien.They shared a love of Sappho’s poetry and studied Greek so they could fully appreciate her poetry.Elisabeth de Gramont, was married with two daughters, when she met Natalie Barney.She separated from her husband in 1918.The relationship continued until de Gramont's death in 1954.Elisabeth de Gramont,the Duchess of Clermont-Tonnerre.descendant of Henry IV of FranceCourtesan Liane de Pougyone of the mostfamous women in France.
13 Gay rights activismParagraph 175 was a provision of the German Criminal Code from May March 1994.It made homosexual acts between males a crime.Around 140,000 men were convicted under the law.The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee movement’s major goal was to educate the public to bring about the repeal of Paragraph 175.Their motto “Justice through science”.Picture: Scientific Humanitarian Committee board in 1901:left to right, Georg Plock, Dr Ernst Burchard,Dr Magnus Hirschfeld, and Baron von Teschenberg.November 1918 the republic emerged from the German Revolution.In 1919 a new constitution was written, to be adopted on the 11th August.This became known as the Weimar Republic, a Liberal democracy.Although the Weimar Republic did not repeal paragraph 175,it did not enforce the law with the same zeal as the First Reich.Nazi’s close Eldorado Club Couples dancing at the Eldorado Club.17th March 1933 the West German Morality League began its Campaign against Homosexuals, Jews and Blacks. The first male homosexuals are sent to concentration camps.
14 Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, a Jew and homosexual, one of founders of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee Institute 1897(the first worldwide homosexual rights organization).In 1919 he became one of sexology's founding fathers when he started theInstitute for Sexual Sciences in Berlin (the world's first sexological institute).He believed that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminatehostility towards homosexuals.Magnus Hirschfield coined the term transsexualism, identifying the clinical category.Transgender people were on the staff of the Institute, as well as being among the clients there.Various endocrinologic and surgical services were offered, including the first modern "sex-change" operations in the 1930s.Hirschfeld also worked with Berlin's police department to curtail the arrest of cross-dressed individuals on suspicion of prostitution.
15 Homosexuality was considerably more open and more openly discussed. Berlin during the 1920’s there was a proliferation of homosexual meeting places, books articles and films.Homosexuality was considerably more open and more openly discussed.Nazi’s close Eldorado Club.Berlin’s thriving lesbian community in the 1920spublished this magazine between 1924 and 1933.DVD cover ofRichard Oswald's 1919 filmfirst gay-themed film in Germany.Different From the Others.Tranvestites couples dancing at Berlin's “Eldorado Club”.
16 Holocaust1933 Nazi’s close all gay bars condemning homosexuals as “social aberrant”.On 23rd of February police closed bars and clubs as “Eldorado”.17th March 1933 the West German Morality League began its Campaign againstHomosexuals, Jews and Blacks.The first male homosexuals are sent to concentration camps.On the 6th May 1933the Institute for sexual Sciencewas destroyed by the SS men and the Nazi students.10th May 1933, Nazis in Berlin burned books by authors considered "un-German." Including literature from the Institute for Sexual Sciences.
17 Pierre SeelFrenchman Pierre Seel 17 years old was detained by the invading Germans.He ended up at the camp in Schirmeck."I was tortured, beaten ... sodomised and raped!", Seel screams in anguish."The Nazis stuck 25cm of wood up my arse ... (it) still bleeds, even today“.“I was used as a human dart board by camp orderlies with syringes.”With stupefaction I recognized my beloved, Jo –The loudspeakers played noisy military music as the SS men stripped him naked,and violently jammed a metal bucket over his head.They unleashed on Jo the camp's ferocious guard-dogs, German Shepherds, who began to rip at his flesh -- first his genitals, and his thighs,and then they devoured Jo before our eyes.Screams of pain were amplified and distorted by the bucket over his head.I fervently prayed that he would rapidly lose consciousness....”For fifty years now that scene has kept ceaselessly passing and re-passing through my mind.
18 “One day they were simply gone” "I saw quite a number of pink triangles. I don't know how they were eventually killed......One day they were simply gone.“In the words of a non-gay survivor:Gay prisoners with pink triangles in the concentration camp at Sachsenhausen.
19 “Project Pink” "The inmates with the pink triangles never lived long; they were exterminated by theSS with systematic swiftness.”A recent study estimated that at least 500,000 homosexuals died in the Holocaust.Homosexuals became the most isolated and shunned inmates in the camps.For gay men, the “liberation" of 1945 meant no end to the discrimination.Many homosexuals remained prisoners in the camps until 1969when Paragraph 175 was repealed in West Germany,24 years after the end of the war.1956 West Germany's Federal Reparation Law for the Victims of the holocaust,declared that homosexuals did not qualify for compensation.Four years after re–unification in 1990, Germany finally abolished Paragraph 175 completely.2000 the German government issues an apology for the prosecution of homosexuals in Germany after 1949 and agrees to recognise gays as victims of the Third Reich.2002 the German parliament completed legislation to pardon all homosexualsconvicted under Paragraph 175 during the Nazi era.
20 Alan Turin Breaking The Nazis’ Enigma Code A Leading Cryptanalyst, who during WW II was pivotal in breaking The Nazis’ Enigma Code.English mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist.He was influential in the development of computer science and providing a formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, playing a significant role in the creation of the modern computer.After the war he worked at the National Physical Laboratory,where he created one of the first designs for astored-program computer, the ACE.Turing's homosexuality resulted in a criminal prosecution in 1952 and he accepted treatment with female hormones, chemical castration, as an alternative to prison.Alan Turing died on 7 June 1954, of cyanide poisoning.An apple was found half-eaten beside his bed, it is speculated that this was the means by which the fatal dose was deliver.
21 Stonewall RiotsThe Stonewall riots were a spontaneous violent demonstrations against a police raid;on the 28th June 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, in the Greenwich Village, New York City.They have become the defining event that marked the start of the gay rights movement in the United States and around the world.American gays and lesbians in the 1950s and 1960s faced a legal system more anti-homosexual than those of some Warsaw Pact countries.The Stonewall Inn, at the time, was owned by the Mafia it catered to an assortment of patrons, drag queens, representatives of the transgender community, effeminate young men, hustlers, and homeless youth.Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s,but officers quickly lost control of the situation at theStonewall Inn, and attracted a crowd that was incited to riot.Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots.The Stonewall Inn, taken September The sign in the window reads:"We homosexuals plead with our people to please help maintain peacefuland quiet conduct on the streets of the Village—Mattachine“.
22 Gender Reassignment Laurence Michael Dillon was a British physician. (born Laura Maud Dillon; 1 May 1915 – 15 May 1962)His brother, Sir Robert Dillon, was the eighth Baronet of Lismullen in Ireland.1945 Sir Harold Gillies and his colleague Ralph Millardcarry out the world's first sex changeof a woman into a man on the young aristocrat, Michael Dillon.Laura Dillon –Coll. of Liz Hodgkinson Michael Dillon, after surgery. - Coll. of Liz Hodgkinson1946 The therapeutic asylums planned in the 1840s failed monumentally, in post war Britain the National Health Service inherited these asylum.Transgender people were considered insane and housed in them.Roberta Cowell, born Robert Cowell, was aSpitfire pilot in World War II and aRacing driver after the war.She was the first known British male-to-female transsexual to undergo sex reassignment surgeryby Sir Harold Gillies.Transgender FlagRoberta Cowell
23 Decriminalization of Homosexuality 1880 The Empire of Japan decriminalizes homosexual acts Argentina decriminalizes homosexuality 1889 The Cleveland Street Scandal erupts in England In Italy, homosexuality is legalised The October Revolution in Russia repeals the previous criminal code in its entirety In England an attempt to make lesbianism illegal for the first time in Britain's history fails A new criminal code comes into force in the USSR officially decriminalizing homosexual acts Panama, Paraguay and Peru legalize homosexuality Denmark and Philippines decriminalizes homosexuality Uruguay decriminalizes homosexuality Iceland decriminalizes homosexuality Switzerland decriminalizes homosexuality Sweden decriminalizes homosexuality Suriname legalizes homosexuality Portugal decriminalises homosexuality for the second time in its history Greece decriminalizes homosexuality Thailand decriminalizes homosexual acts.1961 Czechoslovakia and Hungary decriminalize sodomy Chad decriminalizes homosexuality. The Sexual Offences Act 1967 decriminalizes male homosexual behaviour in England and Wales Homosexual behaviour legalized in Canada 1971 Homosexuality is decriminalized in Austria, Costa Rica and Finland Scotland decriminalizes homosexuality 1982 Northern Ireland decriminalizes homosexuality UK Crown Dependency of Jersey decriminalizes homosexuality Bahamas, Hong Kong and Ukraine decriminalizes homosexuality Estonia, Latvia and UK Crown Dependency of Isle of Man decriminalizes homosexuality Belarus, UK Crown Dependency of Gibraltar, Ireland, Lithuania decriminalize homosexuality. Russia (with the excption of Chechen Republic) Bermuda, Germany, Serbia and South Africa
24 1968 The International Olympic Committee tests chromosomes of athletes, and puts a stop to transsexuals competing.In 1950 Foekje Dillema was expelled for life by the Dutch National Athletics Federation, based on a 'sex test'.In 2008, a test on DNA obtained from her clothing found that she was a genetic mosaic, having cells with either46,XX or 46,XY chromosomes,in approximately a one-to-one ratio, in her skin.Professor Anton Grootegoed of the Erasmus MC concluded that Foekje Dillema was female.This means that she would be allowed to race, if she were competing today.Foekje DillemaTennis Ace Reneé Richards is ‘outed’and barred from competition when she attempts to entera women's’ tennis tournament.Her subsequent legal battle establishes thattranssexuals are legally acceptedin their new identityafter reassignment, in the US.1976
25 Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) Harvey Bernard Milk was an American politician who became the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, when he won a seat on theSan Francisco Board of Supervisors.1978 – San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Mosconeare assassinated by former Supervisor Dan White.The Rainbow (or Gay Pride) Flag was created by artist and vexillographer Gilbert Baker,a friend of the late Harvey Milk, in 1978.The flag debuted at the San Francisco Gay and Lesbian Freedom Day Parade.Member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors from District 5Original eight-stripe version designedby Gilbert Baker in 1978
26 Civil partnerships in Britain granted under the Civil Partnership Act 2004,give same-sex couples rights and responsibilities comparable to civil marriage.Civil partners are entitled to the same property rights as married opposite-sex couples.There is a formal process for dissolving partnerships akin to divorce.Following the Equality Act 2010 same-sex couples in England and Wales may now enter into a civil partnership in a religious venue if the building's proprietor is willing to conduct such a ceremony.It is prohibited for civil partnerships to include religious readings, music or symbols.As of 2010 the lifting of this restriction is under discussion.In Scotland, some mainstream churches offer only blessing ceremonies for same-sex couples.Between approximately 40,000 couples entered into a civil partnership.
27 David Kato Kisule “Hang them”. David Kato Kisule was a Ugandan teacher and LGBT rights activist,considered a father of Uganda's gay rights movement.He served as advocacy officer for Sexual Minorities Uganda(SMUG).Kato was murdered shortly after winning a lawsuit against the Uganda’s Rolling Stone newspaper, for publishing, the name’s, photographs and addresses of dozens of people the paper claimed were gay or lesbian. The Headline read“Hang them”.
28 “The struggle continues” In Memory of David Kato Kisulemurdered on the 26th January 2011.“The struggle continues”Presiding pastor at David Kato’s funeral called on homosexuals to repent or be 'punished by God‘.
29 “Be The Change You Want To See In The World” Mahatma Gandhi