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April 19, 1775 to October 1781 (when troops surrender)

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Presentation on theme: "April 19, 1775 to October 1781 (when troops surrender)"— Presentation transcript:

1 April 19, 1775 to October 1781 (when troops surrender)

2 The Players Patriots-people who supported the war
-Tended to be located in the New England and VA (40-45% pop) -Never more than troops at one time -Offered freedom to slaves who fought -Continental Army and militias -CA was disciplined sector and militias were not—often left to tend farms or families when so desired Loyalists-Tories-people who supported Britain -Tended to be located in NY, NJ, GA (15-20% pop.) British Army Strenths: Strong, well-trained navy and army Strong central gov’t with money Support of colonial Loyalists and Am. Indians Great Britain’s Weaknesses: Large distance separating British from battlefields Troops unfamiliar with terrain Weak military leaders United States’ Strengths: Familiarity of home ground Leadership of George Washington Inspiring Cause-independence! United States’ Weaknesses: Most soldiers untrained and undisciplined Shortage of food and ammo Inferior navy No central government Approximately 25,000 American men died in this war

3 Hessians & Loyalists & C. Army

4 Weapons Flintlock musket -astounding 3 shots per minute!
Rifle-good at long distances Pistol-good at short range Canons Bayonets, tomahawks, pitchforks, swords Currency was issued by each state

5 Major Battles Bunker Hill-misnamed because it occurred at Breed’s Hill. Americans lost, but British had high casualties; King George rejected Olive Branch Petition. June 17, 1775. Siege of Boston-Washington and “militia” (later C.Army) forced British evacuation. 11 month siege (April 1775-March 1776). Opening phase of Revolution. New York-Washington led militia forces, they lost. As a result, British generals (Howe brothers) wanted a repeal of the Declaration. Fighting ensued and the British won control of harbor. Americans forced to retreat to NJ-whole companies of American militias deserted. Winter Trenton-To boost morale and ensure victory, Washington planned a surprise attack on German mercenaries from Hesse (Hessians) by crossing the Delarware River on Christmas night. It was successful and pushed the British back to NYC and saved American morale Saratoga-September-October TURNING point of American Revolution. British General Burgoyne forced to surrender. France formally assisted America. Valley Forge-national symbol of endurance. NW of Philadelphia. Deplorable conditions, 2500 died. Resulted from defeat of Germantown. Washington kept army’s spirits alive to fight another day! Winter Yorktown-Washington and French General Rochambeau marched men in 1 month. Bombarded by French and American canon; last major land battle of the war. Articles of Capitulation were signed October 19, 1781.

6 Famous Persons and Role of Women
Benedict Arnold-famous traitor, spy for British General Burgoyne-British general who surrenders at Saratoga General Cornwallis-British general who surrendered, but didn’t attend surrender. George Washington-leader of Continental Army Frederich von Steuben-Prussian military leader who assisted Washington in training the army at Valley Forge Ethan Allen-war hero, leader of Vermont, Ticonderoga, “Green Mountain Boys” General Rochambeau-French general who assisted Washington at Yorktown Mercy Otis Warren-1st female playwright, wrote about Rev. War Molly Pitcher-represents women’s involvement -worked as volunteers, nurses, seamstresses, ran water for soldiers, took up arms during battles from fallen spouses, traveled with armies

7 Important Facts that helped us WIN!
US received financial assistance from France and Spain—France joined after Saratoga (Oct. 1777) in June 1778 Spain declared war against GB in 1779 GB attempted to pull fighting to South where many Loyalists lived King George III grants independence March 1782 Treaty of Paris of 1783 -US officially recognized as independent -Miss. R. was western boundary -fishing rights off of Canada -Americans would pay debt to British merchants and honor Loyalist claims to property

8 Results of Treaty of Paris:

9 Becoming a Nation States had individual constitutions that largely included rights, separation of powers, voting stipulations and office holding parameters Articles of Confederation passed in 1781: -One body of government=Congress -Powers=wage war, make treaties, diplomatic reps, borrow money -Accomplishments= -Land Ordinance of 1785 -NW Ordinance of 1787

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