Presentation on theme: "IMPROVING PERFORMANCE The goal of performance management Focusing on effort seems to be the natural or knee jerk approach Disconnect can occur between."— Presentation transcript:
IMPROVING PERFORMANCE The goal of performance management Focusing on effort seems to be the natural or knee jerk approach Disconnect can occur between diagnosis and improvement efforts See exhibit 8.1
Exhibit 8.1 Disconnection Between Diagnosis & Performance Improvement Diagnosis Performance Improvement Tactics Lack of Interpersonal Skill Knowledge/ Comfort Zone Treatment Bias Coils on the Brain Personal Style/Habit
Determinants of Performance Performance Ability * Motivation Formula focuses on person factors as causes and, therefore, as the means by which performance can be improved. System Factors Both system & person can be important factors PerformanceAbility * Motivation * System
Process of Performance Improvement What Diagnosis How Three Major Approaches 1. Unilateral 2. Participative 3. Empowered/Self Management
Motivation Internal Persons responsibility External Managements responsibility Practical reality - motivation is a mix of internal & external. We will consider 2 approaches that include a mix of internal & external factors: Goal Setting Expectancy Model
Goal Setting Key Assumptions: 1. Performance isnt limited by difficulties in execution or by some other aspects of the process. Worker knows how to achieve the goal Resources are adequate for achieving the goal 2. The goals are accepted by the workers Key to acceptance is participation in setting goals 3. Goal difficulty needs to be at a fair level
Expectancy Model Choice model. Model provides a structure and systematic approach through which motivation problems can be better understood and better managed.
Basic Statement of Expectancy Model The effort on a task depends on the value the person places on the task the belief that s/he can perform the task Is it important to me? Can I succeed?
Exhibit 8.5 Expectancy Model of Motivation 1st level 2nd leveloutcomes High Effort Low Effort V1 V2 V1 V2 E I
Expectancy Belief that task can be successfully completed if a given level of effort is put forth Perceptions of barriers key determinant of expectancy System factors can be unconscious or systematic assessment Performance criteria can affect the very thing they are meant to measure: performance ambiguity, bias, politics can weaken link between effort & performance Self-efficacy confidence in ability to succeed
Valence of Task Performance Depends on what task performance is perceived as leading to and the value that the worker places on those outcomes link to outcomes: instrumentality value of outcomes: V2 V1 = I * V2 Motivation = E * V1