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**Computer Organization MIPS Arithmetic – Part II**

Dr. Gheith Abandah [Adapted from the slides of Professor Mary Irwin ( which in turn Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, © 2005, UCB]

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Shift Operations Also need operations to pack and unpack 8-bit characters into 32-bit words Shifts move all the bits in a word left or right sll $t2, $s0, 8 #$t2 = $s0 << 8 bits srl $t2, $s0, 8 #$t2 = $s0 >> 8 bits op rs rt rd shamt funct also have sllv, srlv, and srav Notice that a 5-bit shamt field is enough to shift a 32- bit value 25 – 1 or 31 bit positions Such shifts are logical because they fill with zeros

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**Shift Operations, con’t**

An arithmetic shift (sra) maintain the arithmetic correctness of the shifted value (i.e., a number shifted right one bit should be ½ of its original value; a number shifted left should be 2 times its original value) so sra uses the most significant bit (sign bit) as the bit shifted in note that there is no need for a sla when using two’s complement number representation sra $t2, $s0, 8 #$t2 = $s0 >> 8 bits The shift operation is implemented by hardware separate from the ALU using a barrel shifter (which would take lots of gates in discrete logic, but is pretty easy to implement in VLSI)

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Multiply Binary multiplication is just a bunch of right shifts and adds n multiplicand multiplier partial product array can be formed in parallel and added in parallel for faster multiplication n double precision product 2n

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**Multiplication Hardware**

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**Optimized Multiplication Hardware**

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**Fast Multiplication Units**

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**Fast Multiplication Units**

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**MIPS Multiply Instruction**

Multiply produces a double precision product mult $s0, $s1 # hi||lo = $s0 * $s1 Low-order word of the product is left in processor register lo and the high-order word is left in register hi Instructions mfhi rd and mflo rd are provided to move the product to (user accessible) registers in the register file op rs rt rd shamt funct multu – does multiply unsigned Both multiplies ignore overflow, so its up to the software to check to see if the product is too big to fit into 32 bits. There is no overflow if hi is 0 for multu or the replicated sign of lo for mult. Multiplies are done by fast, dedicated hardware and are much more complex (and slower) than adders Hardware dividers are even more complex and even slower; ditto for hardware square root

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Division Division is just a bunch of quotient digit guesses and left shifts and subtracts n n quotient dividend divisor partial remainder array remainder n

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Division Hardware

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**MIPS Divide Instruction**

Divide generates the reminder in hi and the quotient in lo div $s0, $s1 # lo = $s0 / $s1 # hi = $s0 mod $s1 Instructions mfhi rd and mflo rd are provided to move the quotient and reminder to (user accessible) registers in the register file op rs rt rd shamt funct Seems odd to me that the machine doesn’t support a double precision dividend in hi || lo but it looks like it doesn’t As with multiply, divide ignores overflow so software must determine if the quotient is too large. Software must also check the divisor to avoid division by 0.

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**Representing Big (and Small) Numbers**

What if we want to encode the approx. age of the earth? 4,600,000, or x 109 or the weight in kg of one a.m.u. (atomic mass unit) or x 10-27 There is no way we can encode either of the above in a 32-bit integer. Floating point representation (-1)sign x F x 2E Still have to fit everything in 32 bits (single precision) s E (exponent) F (fraction) 1 bit bits bits Notice that in scientific notation the mantissa is represented in normalized form (no leading zeros) The base (2, not 10) is hardwired in the design of the FPALU More bits in the fraction (F) or the exponent (E) is a trade-off between precision (accuracy of the number) and range (size of the number)

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**IEEE 754 FP Standard Encoding**

Most (all?) computers these days conform to the IEEE 754 floating point standard (-1)sign x (1+F) x 2E-bias Formats for both single and double precision F is stored in normalized form where the msb in the fraction is 1 (so there is no need to store it!) – called the hidden bit To simplify sorting FP numbers, E comes before F in the word and E is represented in excess (biased) notation Single Precision Double Precision Object Represented E (8) F (23) E (11) F (52) true zero (0) nonzero ± denormalized number ± 1-254 anything ± ± floating point number ± 255 ± 2047 ± infinity 255 2047 not a number (NaN) Book distinguishes between the representation with the hidden bit there – significand (the 24 bit version) , and the one with the hidden bit removed – fraction (the 23 bit version)

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**Floating Point Addition**

Addition (and subtraction) (F1 2E1) + (F2 2E2) = F3 2E3 Step 1: Restore the hidden bit in F1 and in F2 Step 1: Align fractions by right shifting F2 by E1 - E2 positions (assuming E1 E2) keeping track of (three of) the bits shifted out in a round bit, a guard bit, and a sticky bit Step 2: Add the resulting F2 to F1 to form F3 Step 3: Normalize F3 (so it is in the form 1.XXXXX …) If F1 and F2 have the same sign F3 [1,4) 1 bit right shift F3 and increment E3 If F1 and F2 have different signs F3 may require many left shifts each time decrementing E3 Step 4: Round F3 and possibly normalize F3 again Step 5: Rehide the most significant bit of F3 before storing the result Note that smaller significand is the one shifted (while increasing its exponent until its equal to the larger exponent) overflow/underflow can occur during addition and during normalization rounding may lead to overflow/underflow as well

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Floating-Point Adder

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**MIPS Floating Point Instructions**

MIPS has a separate Floating Point Register File ($f0, $f1, …, $f31) (whose registers are used in pairs for double precision values) with special instructions to load to and store from them lwcl $f1,54($s2) #$f1 = Memory[$s2+54] swcl $f1,58($s4) #Memory[$s4+58] = $f1 And supports IEEE 754 single add.s $f2,$f4,$f6 #$f2 = $f4 + $f6 and double precision operations add.d $f2,$f4,$f6 #$f2||$f3 = $f4||$f5 + $f6||$f7 similarly for sub.s, sub.d, mul.s, mul.d, div.s, div.d

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**MIPS Floating Point Instructions, Con’t**

And floating point single precision comparison operations c.x.s $f2,$f4 #if($f2 x $f4) cond=1; else cond=0 where x may be eq, neq, lt, le, gt, ge and branch operations bclt #if(cond==1) go to PC+4+100 bclf #if(cond==0) go to PC+4+100 And double precision comparison operations c.x.d $f2,$f #$f2||$f3 x $f4||$f cond=1; else cond=0

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