Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The European Union History & Evolution Structures-Functions

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The European Union History & Evolution Structures-Functions"— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Union History & Evolution Structures-Functions
Contemporary Challenges Discussion

2 Evolution of the European Union

3 The Best Intentions Revitalize Europe after World War II
Strength in Unity vs. Warsaw Pact Fix broken economies Promote Dialogue Integrate & Cooperate To this end: Council of Europe, 1949 European Coal & Steel Community, 1951 (Treaty of Paris) Basis for Euro Community…

4 Evolution: European Community (EC)
Established by Treaty of Rome, 1957 Benelux + Fr, Ge, Italy 3 Pillars: European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (aka “Common Market”) European Economic Community (EEC) European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom). The only remaining structure.

5 Evolution: European Communities
Main Concerns of Euro Community Peace Trade & elimination of tariffs Travel National sovereignty Expansion Transitions from communism to capitalism

6 Evolution: EC → EU Maastricht Treaty, 1993. Absorbed the EC.
Authority in new areas: monetary policy, foreign affairs, national security, transportation, the environment, justice, and tourism Established a 3-pillars of authority: Trade and other economic matters (one currency & creation of European Central Bank). 17 members use Euro. So does Vatican, Monaco and 3 others. Justice & home affairs (policy governing asylum, border crossing, immigration, & judicial cooperation on crime and terrorism) Common foreign and security policy (common defense policy, joint positions and actions)

7 Evolution: Membership History
Began w/ 6: Benelux + France, Germany, Italy Denmark, UK, and Ireland joined in early 1970s Greece in 1981 Portugal and Spain in 1986 Austria, Finland, Sweden in 1995 10 Countries joined in 2004: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia Bulgaria and Romania in 2006 The combined population of all 27 members is 510,000,000 Organization and diversity makes consensus hard


9 Structures and Functions of the European Union

10 5 Main Bodies European Commission (EC)—EXEC Council of Ministers—LEG
European Parliament—LEG Court of Justice—JUD Court of Auditors—Financial Evaluator

11 The European Commission (EC)
Executive Body Initiates all legislation and enforces decisions Ensures proper implementation of laws Administers EU budget Represents EU in trade negotiations Scrutinize the implementation of the treaties and legislation Act solely in the interest of the EU as a whole, as opposed to the Council which consists of leaders of member states who reflect national interests. “The only body paid to think European“ Implements, monitors, and controls enforcement of EU law and policy Can bring a Member State before the Court of Justice for failure to enforce EU law Based in Brussels 27 Commissioners. 1 is President (Barroso until 2014) Commissioners appointed for 5 years 25,000 Euro civil servants


13 Council of Ministers Meets in Brussels Legislative Branch I
Legislative authority is divided between Council and EP Council and EP required to vote to pass law Budgetary power (w/EP). 116 bil. euro/year Consists of one Minister from each Member State Responsible for making the major policy decisions of EU Power to adopt legislation proposed by Commission Each Member State acts as President of Council for 6 month rotation Meetings attended by different Ministers according to agenda Develop political cooperation

14 The European Parliament
Legislative II 736 seats. Proportionate Rep. Directly Elected. 5 year terms. Second largest democratic electorate in the world (India) Can’t initiate leg CAN amend and reject legislation CAN request leg CAN Veto Commission CAN censure EC w/ 2/3 majority = resignation of the entire EC Equal legislative and budgetary powers with Council Appoint Court of Auditors and the president and executive board of the European Central Bank Sit in political groups. For a group to be recognized, it needs 25 MEPs from 7 different countries Consensual. People’s Party-Socialist Coalition President Martin Schulz of Germany. 30 month term began in Jan 2012.

15 96/13 Germany 74/10 France 73/10 Italy 73/10 UK 54/7 Spain
   EPP (265)      S&D (186)      ALDE (84)      ECR (55)      Greens – EFA (55)      EUL-NGL (35)      EFD (30)      Non-Affiliated (27) 96/13 Germany 74/10 France 73/10 Italy 73/10 UK 54/7 Spain 51/7 Poland…

16 The European Council Comprises the heads of government of Member States and President of Commission assisted by Foreign Ministers of the Member States and a member of Commission Defines the EU's policy agenda—the motor of EU integration No direct legislative power but "supreme political authority" Meets 4 times/year Sorts out disputes between member states and the institutions President of the European Council Once-renewable term of 30 months Primus inter pares Herman Van Rompuy (Belgium). Dec 2009-Present. 2nd term The President must report to the European Parliament after each European Council meeting

17 All members of Council are members of a political party at national level
Most are members of a Euro Party Ideological alignment does color political agreements and choices of appointments (such as their President) The European Council Party # QMV People's Party 15 204 Socialists 5 65 Liberal Democrat and Reform Party 4 31 Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists 2 41 Party of the Left 1 Total 27 345

18 The Court of Justice Ensures that the European Treaties are interpreted and implemented in accordance with EU law 13 judges appointed by agreement with Member States Assisted by 6 advocates general Judgements overrule those of national courts Power to fine a Member State National courts have power to enforce decisions of Court of Justice

19 The Court of Auditors Monitors the Union’s financial activities
1 member from each EU member state Appointed by Council 6 yr terms 800 auditors No judicial functions Function: externally check EU budget In Luxembourg


21 EU Legal Instruments Binding:
Regulations - Apply directly in the Member States w/o requiring any further national legislation Directives - Binding in substance but up discretion of Member States how to transpose them into national legislation & execute them. Decisions - Addressed to a Member State, firm, or individual. Non Binding: Recommendations Opinions Resolutions

22 Pop Quiz: Who is the European „President“?
a. Herman Van Rompuy - President of the European Council since 12/1/09 b. José Manuel Barroso - President of the European Commission since 11/22/04 c. Ireland - Presidency of the Council of the European Union 1/1/13 – 7/1/13 Anyone?

23 Pop Quiz: Who is the European „President“?
Van Rompuy is President of Council. Not of EU. Yet, the press usually cites him as President. Barroso is President of Commission. Not of EU. Yet, the press often cites him as President. Has more power that Van Rompuy. Gets fewer mentions as President. Ireland. Not. Hehe → Answer: There is no EU President. →Does this matter? No - Presidents are not necessary Yes - most Europeans think there is a President

24 Broadening, Deepning & Legitimizing ...oh, and the economy
Challenges of the EU Broadening, Deepning & Legitimizing ...oh, and the economy


26 EU Policy Challenges 2009-2019: A Report to the President
Economic Issues Deepening/extending economic reforms Reducing unemployment and large gov. Revising financial regulation and supervision Completing the Single Market Balance multilateralism and bilateralism in trade policy Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Ageing population and shrinking workforce Climate change The future of transport

27 EU Policy Challenges 2009-2019: A Report to the President
3. Cultural Issues World Wide Web-balancing security and privacy + intellectual property Audiovisual and cultural policies Civil Rights and Justice Migration policy Crime Safeguarding diversity and cultures 4. The Politics of Poltics Inter EU Structural Issues: Good Governnance and Insitution Building Security & Crisis Mangement ^ Turnout in European Elections in 2014 and 2019

28 EU Policy Challenges 2009-2019: A Report to the President
5. Intermestic Issues Stabilization and Reform in the Balkans Question of Turkish membership Deepening the Eastern Partnership without alienating Russia 6. Foreign Policy Promoting Middle East Peace Seizing the 'Obama moment' to deepen Transatlantic relations Strengthening Europe's relevance to Asia Deepening the EU-Latin American partnership

29 It‘s the Economee Stoopid
“If EU is to flourish far beyond its 50th birthday, it is its economy that most needs attention“ -The Economist „Fit at 50“

30 It‘s the Economee Stoopid

31 Euroscepticism France followed by the Netherlands rejected EU Constitution in 2006. New members are more enthusiastic than the old ones Skeptcism is strongest in UK, though Eurobarometer polls show dissatisfaction in other EU members as well No further expansion

32 Broadening: Eastern Europe?
Possible new members: Croatia, Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro -West: „Easterners may sink the boat“

33 Broadening: Turkey? Pro: -USA -extension into southern Caucasus
-stabilize pipeline: oil and gas -compatibility of Islam with democracy? Con: -dif. levels of development -religious and ethnic feuds -Cyprus

34 Discussion Structures & Functions?
To increase legitimacy? Is it just PR? Broadening vs. Deepening: Focus on deepening and broadening or one of the two?

Download ppt "The European Union History & Evolution Structures-Functions"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google