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1 Verification by Model Checking

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2 Part 1 : Motivation

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3 Introduction Verification: verifying the correctness of computer systems hardware, software or combination It is most obvious in safety-critical systems commercially critical mission critical

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4 Verification parts Formal Verification techniques consist of three parts: 1.A framework for modeling systems some kind of specification language 2.A specification language for describing the properties to be verified 3.A verification method for establishing if the description of the system satisfies the specification

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5 Classification Approaches to verification can be classified in several ways: Proof-based vs. model-based Degree of automation Full- vs. property- verification Intended domain of application hardware-software, sequential-concurrent, reactive- terminating, … Pre- vs. post- development

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6 Proof-based verification The system description is a set of formula Γ in a suitable logic The specification is another formula The verification method is finding a proof that Γ means deduction It typically needs the user guidance and expertise

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7 Model-based verification The system is represented by a model M for an appropriate logic The specification is again represented by a formula The verification method consist of computing whether a model M satisfies M satisfies : M The computation is usually automatic for finite models

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8 Degree of automation From fully automated to fully manual

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9 Full- vs. property-verification The specification may describe a single property of the system, or it may describe its full behavior (expensive).

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10 Intended domain of application Hardware, software Sequential, concurrent Reactive, terminating Reactive: reacts to its environment, and is not meant to terminate (e.g. operating systems, embedded systems, computer hardware)

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11 Pre- vs. post-development Verification is of greater advantage if introduced early in system development

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12 Model checking Model checking is an automatic, model-based, property-verification approach It is intended to be used for concurrent and reactive systems The purpose of a reactive system is not necessarily to obtain a final result, but to maintain some interaction with its environment Concurrency bugs non reproducible not covered by test cases

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13 Temporal Logic The idea is that a formula is not statically true or false in a model The models of temporal logic contain several states a formula can be true in some and false in the others The static notion of truth is replaced by a dynamic one the formulas may change their truth values as the system evolves from state to state

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14 Temporal Logic (cont.) In model checking: The models M are transition systems The properties φ are formulas in temporal logic Model checking steps: 1. Model the system using the description language of a model checker : M 2. Code the property using the specification language of the model checker : φ 3. Run the model checker with the inputs M and φ

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15 Model checker M Model Checker p F q yes no φ Error Trace

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16 Linear vs. Branching Linear-time logics think of time as a set of paths path is a sequence of time instances (Where time is linear, called Linear – Time Temporal Logic) Branching time logics represent time as a tree it is rooted at the present moment and branches out into the future (Where time is Branching, Called Computation Tree Logic). Many logics were suggested during last years that fit into one of above categories We study LTL in linear time logics and CTL in branching time logics

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17 Linear vs. Branching (cont.) Linear Time Every moment has a unique successor Infinite sequences (words) Linear Time Temporal Logic (LTL) Branching Time Every moment has several successors Infinite tree Computation Tree Logic (CTL)

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