2 A Written Report allows you to: Systematically construct and expand your ideasScan what other people have written on the same topic as a way of gaining some context for your own projectCarry out your own primary research
3 A Written Report allows you to: Critically analyse the implications of your research - by methodically separating your information into parts and studying their interrelations i.e. what is the problem, what are the causes, what are the effects and the resulting consequences?Construct solutions/measures to tackle problems
4 Remember:The whole report must ‘flow’ logically – smooth flow of ideas from one section to anotherThe language and tone need not be complex – simplicity is important for readers to understand - the key to effective communication
5 In PW, your WR must demonstrate Evaluate evidence gathered from research (A&E)Gather credible evidence to substantiate ideas (SI)Generate conclusions, implications &/or limitations (A&E)Organize findings into a coherent format (OI)Generate ideas & recommendations based on analysis of issues (GI)Present findings in an easily understood report (OI)The WR should not just be a ‘cut-and-paste’ job, rehashing things from the internet etc. This is a formal report which allows you to show off your ability to fulfill the abovementioned criteria.
6 Assessment Requirements About 1000 (CID 3) 1500 (CID 4) words excluding references, citations & accompanying captions for tables and diagramsMust meet all project task requirements Must include in-text citations & referencesClearly paginatedTypewritten, double-spaced, font-size no smaller than 12Refer to question paper for more details
7 Assessment– Band Descriptors CriterionApproaching ExpectationMeeting ExpectationExceeding ExpectationSubstantiation of ideas (SI)Main ideas are supported by few relevant details and examplesMain ideas are supported by relevant details and examplesMain ideas are well supported by relevant details and examplesGeneration of Ideas (GI)Ideas are largely rehashed with little or no modificationIdeas are appropriately modified and / or developedIdeas are insightful and /or innovativeAnalysis & Evaluation of Ideas (GI)Ideas are analysed and evaluated in a limited wayIdeas are sufficiently analysed and evaluatedIdeas are thoroughly analysed and evaluatedOrganization of Ideas (OI)Ideas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is difficult to followIdeas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is easy to followIdeas are presented and organised coherently
8 Generation of Ideas (GI) CriterionApproaching ExpectationMeeting ExpectationExceeding ExpectationGeneration of Ideas (GI)Ideas are largely rehashed with little or no modificationIdeas are appropriately modified and / or developedIdeas are insightful and / or innovativeGeneration of ideas requires candidates to use the outcomes of research in which they have been engaged to develop ideas of their own.The ideas you come up with do not always have to be fresh (innovative). The can also be modifications or adaptations of existing practices – as long as the idea is well explained in detail e.g. how it will work, who will be involved in implementing it, how it can be implemented etc – all this will count as “insightful”.
9 Different ways to demonstrate GI Come up with your own proposals/ideasModify someone else’s original ideasTransplant original ideas into a new environment and show how it is differentCombine different ideas into oneSuggest solutions to counter the limitations of a problem
10 Some pointers for GI Use a variety of methods of showcase your ideas Come up with creative twists to conventional ideas, e.g. Exhibitions, fairs, posters – how is your group going to try and do these differently? Twist? New Spin?Explain clearly how the activities/solutions are relevant to the project – otherwise your ideas remain random & disconnected
11 Analysis & Evaluation of Ideas (A&E) CriterionApproaching ExpectationMeeting ExpectationExceeding ExpectationAnalysis & Evaluation of Ideas (A&E)Ideas are analysed and evaluated in a limited wayIdeas are sufficiently analysed and evaluatedIdeas are thoroughly analysed and evaluatedAnalysis and evaluation of ideas requires candidates to consider, analyse and judge critically the quality and effectiveness of ideas they are presenting.As a rule, whenever you generate an idea or present someone else’s ideas from research, you MUST analyse it.Usually, giving a solution or limitation is considered as generating an idea.Analysing means breaking down that idea you just generated, explaining it simply, giving consequences, stating benefits, problems, challenges and implications for all parties involved.Anything on feasibility and manageability can be considered part of analysis.Evaluation is when you pass judgment on the idea, or give your opinion/view on something i.e. when you say this is practical, workable, dependable, impractical, etc. If for example, you have analysed an idea and found it feasible on 1 context, but you feel it will not work in another context, stating that can be considered evaluation. Then you must back that up by analysis i.e. explaining the disadvantages or challenges of that idea when translated into another context.When this is done CONSISTENTLY throughout the report, and with as much depth as possible, then you get EE i.e. “thoroughly”. This means you have taken the trouble to really examine something in detail.Usually after doing this, there is room to generate solutions/recommendations/counter-measures – which will then show GI & show a smooth thought process to the examiner.
12 Ways to demonstrate A&E A&E of primary/secondary researchA&E of your own proposalA&E of current/past situation or problems or methodsQuality & depth of A&E really counts!
13 Ways to demonstrate A&E Show detailed evaluation of ideascritically assess data; don't just regurgitate existing informationLogical & coherent arguments form the key to analysis & evaluation
14 Ways to demonstrate A&E Demonstrating Evaluation – leading towards recommendationsSuggest possible reasons for your findingsExplain what you plan to do with your findingsHow do your findings impact your final recommendations?Try to draw links between primary and secondary research cited
15 Ways to demonstrate A&E RecommendationsMust outline the specific actions required for implementation/feasibilityMust be linked to previously mentioned problems/gaps/inadequacies
16 Ways to demonstrate A&E Evaluate the likely effectiveness of your recommendationsWho will implement the recommendations/solutions you have suggested?How might they be measured for effectiveness?What is a feasible/logical timeframe for the implementation of recommended solutions/strategies?
17 Ways to demonstrate A&E What are the benefits of the recommendations for the stakeholders? I.e. why is your recommendation better than the previous way of doing things?Evaluate the likely limitations & future possibilities of your recommendationsConsider the limitations & necessary conditions for successSuggest follow-up action
18 Some pointers for A&EOffer a balanced view of both the benefits and limitations of ideas/proposals to target group – remember that for every limitation you point out, you can score for GI by suggesting possible short-term and long-term solutionsAnalyse the effectiveness of the ideas as a whole; do not focus only on smaller aspects, e.g. cost, logistics – balance short-term financial costs with long-term social benefits for e.g.
19 Organization of Ideas (OI) CriterionApproaching ExpectationMeeting ExpectationExceeding ExpectationOrganization of Ideas (OI)Ideas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is difficult to followIdeas are presented and organised in such a way that the report is easy to followIdeas are presented and organised coherentlyOrganisation of ideas focuses on the structure of the Report in terms of its organisation, development and overall coherence.
20 Ways to demonstrate OI Clear sections/components Possible sections/components:Title pageTable of contentsIntroductionLiterature reviewProposed projectData collection methodologyRecommendations/strategiesLimitations & future possibilitiesConclusionSee sample WRs for possible sections/components
21 Ways to demonstrate OIRelevance of each section to overall project & each otherConsistent use of linking phrasesSensible headings, sub-headings, numbering & bulletsRefer to Handout “Transition Words & Phrases”Use of appropriate languageToneNo jargon, clichés or slangNo unnecessarily complex vocabulary and sentence structures
22 Ways to demonstrate OIUse of relevant examples and/or analogies to provide clarity in explanationsUse of tables ONLY when appropriateUse of appropriate illustrationsRefer to handout “Checklist for Illustrations”
23 A good WR is clearly organized A clear objectiveAn introduction & conclusionOrganization & StructureClarityReference material (in-text citations & at the end, primary/secondary references)Development of IdeasFlow
24 WR Introduction Define the scope of the report State how the report will be developed i.e. areas that will be covered for e.g. hypothesis, literature review, research, proposal, recommendations, strategies etcState your objectives clearlyThe objective/sWhat you intend to do/showWhat conclusions you are leading towards
25 WR Introduction – Thesis Statement The task requirements only define the broad areas to be covered; every WR must have a thesis statementa one-sentence statement about your topic. It's an assertion about your topic, something you claim to be true/that you will show to be true/possibleSample – WR on domestic workers
26 WR Introduction Give a brief background to your chosen subject What problem or area of need did your project start with?This gives the rationale for why you chose your proposed amalgamation/alternativeState the links/similarities between your starting point and proposed topic – refer to the Task Requirements in Question PaperSome ways of starting are by stating a fact/factsOr you can begin with a questionYet another way of beginning your report can be with a bold assertion or statement
27 WR IntroductionIn your introduction, show that you know what you're talking about, that you've investigated the matter thoroughly, have considered the implications of your findings, and in the report you will be offering a carefully thought-out analysisThis job of uncovering and displaying your reasoning is what the assessment criteria demand
28 WR Conclusion Typically signaled by words & phrases such as: ConsequentlyHence we can see that…As a result…This report suggests that…Ultimately, if we consider that…This report has shown…Therefore it is clear from this report that…
29 WR ConclusionShould not provide any new information (statistics, examples, definitions, background research, literature review etc)Should be related to the introduction so that the reader is reminded of the objectives laid out in the introductionSample WR – domestic workersTip 1: A conclusion should be conclusive! Introducing new information would require a degree of interpretation and analysis, and hence any new information should be put forth before the conclusion so that sufficient attention can be given to it.Tip 2: This would give the reader the assurance that there are no loose ends to be tied up and that the report has completed everything that was laid out in the introduction. Remember, the conclusion is to give a sense of finality to the report.
30 WR Conclusion Ask some basic questions to help you write it: And therefore?So what?What does all this finally have to do with the task?What do I most want my readers to take away from this report?What do I hope they'll know now that they've read this?What last thoughts do I want to leave them with?
31 Some pointers for OI Be systematic and structured in approach Use appropriate graphics and illustrations to lend the report an air of professionalismDo not insert unnecessary and distracting graphics, mind-maps or imagesTables should include statistical information & survey results, not big amounts of text
32 WR RemindersChoose words with care – avoid ambiguity & reader misinterpretationThoroughly check spelling & punctuationEnsure NO plagiarism – all secondary material must be acknowledged clearly (all reports will be run through Turnitin software to check for plagiarism)You may split up the writing among your members but ensure 1 person puts everything together & vets the report
33 Substantiation of Ideas (SI) CriterionApproaching ExpectationMeeting ExpectationExceeding ExpectationSubstantiation of Ideas (SI)Main ideas are supported by few relevant details and examplesMain ideas are supported by relevant details and examplesMain ideas are well supported by relevant details and examplesSubstantiation of ideas directs candidates to ensure that the ideas they present in their Written Report are backed up by supporting details and examples.This could be information that the candidates have gathered in the form of literature reviews and/or real world data gathered from surveys, interviews, fieldwork or experiment.Examples should be given to support points being made and may include diagrams, designs, photographs etc.Remember that merely quoting some fact/piece of data is not going to count as making an argument (A&E) or generating an idea (GI) – you must analyse what the fact/data means (A&E), and then from there, spin off a suggestion/recommendation (GI)Quantity AND Quality of research will count here so do enough research (primary and/or secondary – not compulsory to have both)
34 Research & Data Presentation Proper use of researchResearch findings do not prove conclusions; at most they support ideas/conclusions (SI)Research findings must be interpreted (for GI and A&E)Improper research = weak GI & A&E
35 Research & Data Presentation Survey DataTablesPie ChartsBar GraphsLine GraphsPlace only relevant & immediate data in the main WR
36 Research & Data Presentation InterviewQuote relevant excerpts onlyA copy of the survey questionnaire/interview questions can be included in the Annexe for reference
37 Incorporating Research Briefly highlight relevant info researched about your starting point amalgamation/alternative, its unique features & lessons learntExplain how specific aspects of the amalgamation/alternative can be applied to the proposed amalgamation/conservationHighlight existing/past problems/ways of doing thingsEmphasize aspects that you are learning from & modifying/applying to the new contexti.e. significant problems/inadequacies in the past/current way of doing things which will be addressed in the project
38 Incorporating Research Important to show/cite a range of sourcesDiscuss limitations & usefulness of the researchCan show briefly how any major gaps in secondary research are supplemented by primary researchBe brief; do not quote at great length; extract only the ideasUse footnotes judiciously
39 Research Results & Findings State clearly the purpose of the survey/interview, the number of people surveyed/name of intervieweeHighlight only relevant & useful findings that the survey/interview surfacedDo not just describe findings; actively explain, discuss implications, analyze problems raised etc
40 Research Results & Findings Present findings in as simple a way as possibleGraphs, charts & diagrams help your reader to identify key results & break the flow of written textHowever, complicated info is difficult to interpret
41 Pointers for SIHave a good range of information sources (both primary and secondary)Use the surveys and interviews conducted to support your workIntegrate your surveys into the project; don’t present them as isolated segments
43 Ways to develop paragraphs State the factsProvide 1 or 2 solid examples – could be survey data/statisticsExplain what it means/impliesMake comparisons/show contrast between your own idea & someone else’s ideaRefer to Handout “Topic Sentences”
44 Ways to demonstrate A&E What is an ARGUMENT?An argument is made up of 2 kinds of statements:(1) the conclusion (main claim) is the statement which follows from the other statements&(2) the reasons (evidence) are those statements which are intended to support the conclusion
45 Ways to demonstrate A&E argument = specific position + supporting pointsargument = main claim + supporting evidenceargument = conclusion + reasons
47 Weak A&E – Fallacies in reasoning Slippery slopeAssuming that a proposed solution will set off an uncontrollable chain of eventsThere is no reason to believe that one event must inevitably follow from another without an argument for such a claim"The US shouldn't get involved militarily in other countries. Once the government sends in a few troops, it will then send in thousands to die."
48 Weak A&E – Fallacies in reasoning Hasty generalizationsReaching a broad conclusion on the statistics of a survey of a small group that fails to sufficiently represent the whole population“We sampled 100 Singaporean males regarding the issue of gay marriage... Most of them disapproved, therefore most Singaporeans would disapprove of gay marriage":
49 Weak A&E – Fallacies in reasoning Appeal to common practice“X is a common action. Therefore X is correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc.”Basic idea: the fact that most people do X is used as "evidence" to support the action or practiceFallacy: the fact that most people do something does not make it correct, moral, justified, or reasonable
50 Weak A&E – Circular Arguments Using conclusion as a premise“Our project on solar powered cars will be a success because it doesn’t pollute the environment. Because many people will use our product, it will not pollute the environment”