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How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions -

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1 How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions -
The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 9 How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - I want a larger field… Don’t log! The forest gives us various foods. I want to export timber and make a profit.  In Chapter 9, we will look at the social institutions (systems) involved in biodiversity conservation. We looked at ecological methods for conserving biodiversity in Chapter 8. However, to actually conserve biodiversity, there is a major problem that has to be resolved before implementing conservation - that is: consensus building. As this slide shows, different people have different ideas about how to make future use of a high biodiversity ecosystem. As you can see, it is extremely difficult to find a utilization method that satisfies everyone. Here, social institutions (systems) are needed as mechanisms to adjust the various conflicting interests. I am looking for materials to make new medicines.

2 In Review The conservation of biodiversity should be precautionary and follow the adaptive management system. Establishment of protected areas is effective for conserving indigenous species and rare ecosystems.  Let us start by quickly reviewing the ecological method for biodiversity conservation we studied in the previous lecture. The fundamental ecological method we discussed was a precautionary one following the adaptive management system. Furthermore, establishment of protected areas to protect rare ecosystems by isolating them from human activity is often effective.

3 Today’s Topics – Focusing on Southeast Asian tropical rainforests
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity How we can characterize the conventional institutions in terms of biodiversity conservation? 2. Conventional institutions What are the problems that the conventional social systems face in trying to conserve biodiversity? 3. Actions for improving institutions Nevertheless, it is not always possible to achieve ecologically desirable biodiversity conservation and management, because there are many interested parties in society, including people who are dependent on the resources of the land for their livelihoods, and people who make money from selling resources. Doubtless, the people profiting from an ecosystem will resolutely oppose any restrictions placed on the use of land resources in the name of conservation. In this chapter of the lecture series, we will consider what kind of institutions (systems) prove effective in practice when applied to actual society. We will take the tropical region, which is said to have the highest biodiversity, as our main example, and focus on what kind of social institutions are used to protect biodiversity, as well as look at the problems in conventional institutions (systems), and whether or not they are being corrected in recent years. How we can establish institutions that effectively conserve biodiversity?

4 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity
How we can characterize the conventional institutions in terms of biodiversity conservation? 1) What are conservation institutions? 2) Points to keep in mind 3) Three levels in institutions International treaties/agreements, Domestic laws, Customary rules First, how can we characterize institutions used to protect biodiversity? To do that, we first need to know what social institutions are. At the same time, we need to think about areas that require caution when considering social institutions, and, likewise, the levels that social institutions are structured into.

5 Nature conservation groups
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 1) What is an institution? Rules (laws, etc.) Rangers Nature conservation groups Institutions ≠ Walls which protect nature from its destroyers Timber theft Poaching Development Normally, when “institutions for the conservation of nature” gets mentioned, most people tend to think about what mechanisms can be used for protection. (Click), Many people’s image will be one where there are “villains” such as poachers and resort developers exploiting wildlife, and to protect wildlife from such wrongdoings, (click) laws and penalties are toughened, and monitoring organized. However, (click) in fact, that image is wrong. (Click) Effective social institutions are ones that use mechanisms which adjust the various interests. So, we need to keep this point in mind when considering effective institutions. (Comment) Top photos Left: Oriental stork (Cicionia boyciana) (Japanese population became extinct in 1971) Center: Gifu butterfly Right: Pogonia Gifu butterfly and pogonia are in danger of extinction because number of plants has decreased because of human activity. Effective institutions = mechanisms which adjust conflicting interests Photo: (left) Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture (middle and right) Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, ‘Kyororo’

6 Not everyone can obtain sufficient benefits.
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2) Points to keep in mind 1. Diverse services of biodiversity produce varied interests. I want to eat mushrooms. Don’t log! I want a larger field… Not everyone can obtain sufficient benefits. …Institutions which meet conflicting interests are needed. I want to export timber and make a profit. The forest give us various foods. Here, 2 points must be kept in mind when thinking about social institutions for conservation of biodiversity. The first point is that the interests of people are truly numerous. Therefore, I think it is good idea that we refrain from viewing the interested parties by pitting those good people who dedicate their lives to conserving nature against bad people who illegally log and poach, and, instead, look at the stances and attitudes people have when it comes to “biodiversity”. Here, in this slide, we have a tropical rainforest of the primary forest variety. Different people have different ideas about how they want to use this primary forest. (Click) The indigenous people and nature lovers want to conserve the primary forest. However, agricultural people want to burn the it to increase farmland. There are local people who want to go into it to collect organisms, like mushrooms, to eat. Logging companies want to make money by logging and exporting the timber from it. And, scientists from developed nations want to search the primary forest for materials to make new drugs. In these ways, we all take our stances, from where we make our covetous demands for this and that. These individual desires are natural and, as such, cannot be denied. However, (click) in terms of sustainable biodiversity, all of these desires cannot be fulfilled. So, social institutions are needed to adjust the interests of the parties concerned. I am looking for materials to make new medicines.

7 What is a rule which adjusts conflicting interests?
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2) Points to keep in mind What is a rule which adjusts conflicting interests? a) Makes a distinction between lands used for production (farmlands, cutovers, etc.) and those that are conserved (protected areas). b) Restricts the amount or kinds of resources which may be utilized (tree species or numbers which may be logged, wild animal species which are permitted to be hunted, etc.). What is important … Who may utilize the land or resources and how Who should manage the land or resources and how To adjust interests, rules have to be determined in advance. Without these predetermined rules, conflict among interested parties will most certainly occur when interests clash. Here, in this slide, we have a couple of ideas on rule setting. In the first one a), the idea is to conserve a region, and so the rules concern making a distinction between lands used, with permission given to people to use some land, while a stricter approach is taken for other land in order to conserve nature. In the second one b), the rules are more specific, stating who can use the resources and to what extent – in other words, rules concerning utilization form. In cases of conflicting interests, rules are needed to achieve equitable distribution of profits. It is not only profits that needs to be considered, rules also are needed to determine who will be responsible for managing the land in question. Using the land based on these rules, (click) hopefully should result in sustainable use of resources, as a whole. Therefore, the role of social institutions (systems) is not to determine what is “good” and what is “bad” but rather adjust the many conflicting interests to enable sustainable use of resources. The role of social systems is to limit their utilization to the extent that sustainable use is guaranteed.

8 …Institutions to regulate human activities are needed.
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 2) Points to keep in mind 2. Institutions needed differ according to the characteristics of the ecosystem to be conserved. On an international level, one of the most important interests is in conserving tropical rainforests. High biodiversity Non-rainforest countries (Japan, India, Taiwan, Korea, China, EU, etc.) greatly affect the unsustainable use of tropical rainforests (by importing tropical timber, palm oil, etc.). …Institutions to regulate human activities are needed. In some ecosystems, however, high biodiversity is kept just by human activities. What needs to be considered in the second point regarding social institutions for biodiversity is that required social institutions vary depending on the characteristics of the ecosystem that needs to be protected. Conflicting interests differ for different ecosystems. Thus, different restrictions and efforts are required to protect those interests. And, according to those different needs, different land division approaches, different land utilization forms and different levels of management responsibility have to be applied. As a result, different rules have to be introduced. For example, viewed in worldwide terms, the issue gathering most attention at present is the conservation of tropical rainforest - land said to have the highest biodiversity in the world. Causes behind the loss of tropical rainforest include logging and development of plantations for products like palm oil. Countries like Japan, India, Taiwan and Korea import vast amounts of rainforest lumber. While China and EU nations import vast amounts of palm oil. So, in other words, these nations have massive sway over the unsustainable use of tropical rainforests. Nonetheless, conversely, there are also ecosystems that need human activities to conserve biodiversity. The Japanese satoyama introduced in Chapter 4 is a prime example of this. In this way, we can see that even when the problem is an identical one of conserving biodiversity, the method for resolving the problem may vary greatly depending on the ecosystem in question. For that reason, each conservation case requires its own countermeasures and regulations. In plain terms, (click) this means that in the first point, the need is to adjust interests in some way to reduce human activities; whereas, in the second point, the need is to somehow adjust interests to maintain an acceptable level of human disturbance and to designate the people who will bear responsibility for the labor and costs. Prime example is satoyama. …Institutions to maintain human activities.

9 Institutions = rules + implementation
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions Institutions = rules + implementation Three levels of the rules 1. International treaties/agreements Country enters into a treaty by its own will, and has a duty to follow the rules. 2. Domestic laws Public rules which are decided by a country Up to now, I have used the 2 terms “social institutions” and “rules” as the mechanisms for adjusting conflicting interests. However, in a strict sense, the meanings of these terms differ. The term “rule” is an arrangement that permits when and where something may be done or not done. Whereas, “social institutions” incorporate the rules and the mechanisms for implementing them. This is somewhat complicated, so let us start by looking at the meaning of rules. Our societies are multilevel constructions, with a local community level where everyone knows each other well, on to a national level where far less people know each other directly, and right through to an international level. And, the rules also have a tiered construction according to the level they are being used in. In other words, the applicable ranges for rules are divided into an international level, a domestic level and a customary (local community) level. At the international level, most of the rules are treaties and agreements. At the domestic level, the state makes public rules – namely, laws. At community level, the rules are often traditionally observed customs. These are all rules, but their characteristics vary. For instance, in the case of an international treaty, it is left to the judgment of each country concerned to decide whether or not to sign and ratify the treaty. If a country enters into the treaty, that country has a duty to follow the rules comprised in the treaty. Whereas, if a country does not enter into the treaty, that country does not have to follow the rules of the treaty. However, in the case of domestic laws, regardless of whether you agree with or oppose the laws, as citizens, you are obligated to follow the rules in the laws. Customary rules differ greatly from international treaties and domestic laws. Customary rules take shape historically and culturally over long periods of time, becoming fixed customs in local communities. They are not compulsory rules decided by a power such as government but rules that are mutually watched over and maintained within local communities. Nevertheless, these rules are not necessarily mutually consistent. For example, with regard to customs, there are some that have fixed validity in laws and others that have none. For those without validity, local communities are unable to assert such customary rules when there is some kind of conflict of interests. Thus, in real situations, problems occur because local communities find themselves at a disadvantage when dealing with outside businesses, etc., that shelter behind the law. Consequently, the mere existence of such rules is meaningless. They have to be rules that can be fully enforced on site. If they are all form and no content - without the power to control violations, lenient to the point where violations go unpunished, and allow rampant corruption - they lose all validity. Thus, there needs to be consideration given to this problem, including ideas on how to make rules effective, which is where social institutions have an important role to play. Using the following slides, we will look in detail at the various levels of social institutions. 3. Customary rules Agreements by local communities which have traditional and cultural backgrounds

10 E.g., 1) The Convention on Biological Diversity
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions 1. International treaties/agreements E.g., 1) The Convention on Biological Diversity Circumstances Adopted at UNCED in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 150 countries have signed at present. Contents Overview of conservation and utilization of biodiversity - sustainability and fair balance Cooperation between developed and developing countries developed countries: techniques and funds - developing countries: permission for dealing with genetic resources First, let us look at social institutions at the international level. When it comes to biodiversity conservation, the most representative of international treaties/agreements is The Convention on Biological Diversity, which was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in It is a globally reaching convention, comprehensively filled with articles related to biodiversity conservation and utilization, from principles, and an international cooperation framework, right through to an organization to work out the details of the convention. However, doubts remain about its effectiveness, because it sets only laxly obligated nonbinding targets, without defining what constitutes a violation and what kind of penalties should be applied. In fact, this problem is not just limited to The Convention on Biological Diversity, many treaties related to global environment do not have determined penalties. Organization Secretariat, COP, SBSTTA, various working committees …detailed discussions are progressing. (See Chapter 1)

11 1. International treaties/agreements
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions 1. International treaties/agreements E.g., 2) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage UNESCO World Heritage also is an international approach. Candidates for the status of world natural heritage are natural sites that are of outstanding and universal value to all mankind. To be registered as natural heritage, a site needs to meet several conditions, such as including a prime natural phenomenon or region that is aesthetically important and of outstanding natural beauty, an outstanding example showing an important stage of global history, and natural habitats that are the most important and significant to the conservation of biodiversity, etc. The photo on the left of the slide shows Khao Yai National Park in Thailand. And, the photo on the right shows the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Both of these are registered as World Natural Heritage sites. Landscape of Khao Yai National Park Landscape of Great Barrier Reef Photo: (left) Shumpei Kitamura     (right) Yasunori Maezono

12 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions
2. Domestic laws E.g., protection by establishment of National Parks (NP) or other protected areas National Park system Two purposes: conservation and sightseeing; consideration of carrying capacities. In many countries, residence and/or human activities for making a living is forbidden within NP. Next, some examples of domestic laws. Within the system of domestic rules or laws, the most common legislation is for national parks. However, the regulations for national parks varies widely depending on the country concerned. Some countries will allow people to reside and/or make a living and/or conduct tourism within national parks, while others completely prevent (regulate against) such activities. Yet again, apart from national parks, there are many types of refuge systems. A good deal of ingenuity is needed for a refuge aiming to combine nature conservation with tourism. The reason being that if such a refuge becomes popular, more and more tourists will seek to enter the refuge, causing a detrimental impact on the ecosystem. Likewise, tourist related garbage and sewage becomes a problem. Therefore, to achieve compatibility between conservation and tourism, there sometimes needs to be strict control of tourist numbers. Various other protected areas Giving ‘conservation’ priority over ‘utilization’, such as sightseeing

13 E.g., iriai in Japanese local communities
1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity 3) Three levels of institutions 3. Customary rules E.g., iriai in Japanese local communities …Natural resources in a local community are the property of all people of the community. Common resources in a community (forests, grasslands, ponds, etc.) Maintained by customary rules for traditional managements and utilization (e.g., all people cut weeds covering the forest floor, taking firewood by turns, monitoring common resources, etc.) People who break the customary rules are ostracized. Lastly, examples at the local community level. At local community level, a representative example of customary rules is the Japanese institution of “iriai” or shared use. In Japan, long ago, all villagers shared and managed secondary forests (the underbrush being cut for kindling and compost) and ponds (the water being used for agricultural irrigation and fishing). And, customary rules were adopted for everyone to equally use and maintain such facilities. These were not enforced by governmental authority (for example: police or courts) but by the village association – in other words, the villagers maintained the rules by mutual monitoring, employing a penalty system to deal with anyone who broke the rules. In fact, among all the examples of traditional common resource management seen around the world, the Japanese iriai system is an effective one in terms of assuring sustained use of resources. It seems that most other countries or regions have not always established such solid customs. Even today, with the use of satoyama resources fading out, the joint management of iriai land still exists in areas around Japan as a symbol of local community. Iriai is a strong self-government of communities independent of public authority, and able to ensure sustainable use of natural resources. Such systems are rarely found in other countries.

14 Summary 1. Institutions for the conservation of biodiversity
Institutions are mechanisms which adjust various conflicting interests. When institutions for the conservation of biodiversity are established, we should consider: 1) Interests regarding biodiversity vary according to ecosystem services. 2) Effective institutions also vary according to the characteristics of the ecosystem to be conserved. Institutions are divided into three levels: international, national and local community levels. Now let me summarize the institutions for conserving biodiversity. First, social institutions do not aim at punishing bad people but rather at adjusting the various conflicting interests. To legislate a system for the conservation of biodiversity, consideration needs to be given to the conflicting interests among people enjoying the varying ecosystem services and the employment of a system that suits the characteristics of the ecosystem in question. These social institutions are divided into three levels – international, domestic and local community – to accommodate the tiered constructions of our societies.

15 2. Conventional institutions
What are the problems that conventional social systems have trying to conserve biodiversity? 1) The alienation between human and natural environments 2) Relationships between government and local people Well, now I would like to move on to our second topic. Institutions - like national parks that have been the mainstream up to now - have their drawbacks, in that people are often no longer involved directly with nature or the various conflicting interests are difficult to adjust. In other words, the state and local citizens often find consensus building difficult. So, let us take a look at some examples of this problem.

16 Developing countries in Southeast Asia
2. Conventional institutions 1) The alienation between human and natural environments Developing countries in Southeast Asia Tropical rainforest managements by governments cause the alienation between human and natural environments. Untouched nature is to be strictly conserved as NP or the other protected area. To start with, let us look at the first problem: the alienation between human and natural environments. In developing countries in Southeast Asia, the local inhabitants from the outset used to live in harmony with the cycles of nature based on customs. However, as a result of governments taking control of forests, changes have taken place in the relationships between local inhabitants and nature. Now, in order to protect the biodiversity of tropical rainforests, governments strictly preserve untouched (pristine) nature in the form of national parks and refuges. Utilization of such designated areas for human activities is now refused. Conversely, areas outside of the national parks and refuges have become targets for development to bring modernization, and, thus, such areas have been turned into logging areas or plantations (rubber and palm oil). In other words, from the viewpoint of local inhabitants, usable forest has almost disappeared. Added to which, in recent times, more and more young people are moving to the cities. Modernization and development is progressing outside NPs, where local people live.

17 Landscape of Kyoto city
2. Conventional institutions 1) The alienation between human and natural environments Developed countries Modernization and urban development reduce opportunities for human contact with nature. Even in developed countries, the alienation between human and natural environments is growing, but the reasons for that are considerably different to those in Southeast Asia. With developed countries, a major alienation influence is modernization. Urban development has come a long way, and people have migrated from rural areas to urban areas. This has led to depopulation in rural areas which are home to agricultural ecosystems maintained by people. Lifestyle changes – such as the use of fossil fuels – have also played there part, until now the management of agricultural ecosystems has ceased. Further, people who live in urban areas without much greenery find it harder and harder to have regular contact with nature. Landscape of Kyoto city

18 Changes in the relationships between humans and nature
2. Conventional institutions 1) The alienation between human and natural environments Changes in the relationships between humans and nature Developing countries - Separation of humans from nature by forest managements and developments Developed countries - Segregation of human life from nature because of modernization and urban development Various medicinal herbs Seen in this way, it becomes obvious that the relationships between humans and nature are changing. As we have seen today, in developing countries, the daily contact with nature is being broken down by forest management and forest development. Moreover, in developed countries, the loss of forests has accompanied modernization and urban development, with, in particular, urban dwellers losing opportunities to come into contact with nature. This severing of regular contact with nature is one of the factors bringing about the loss of traditional knowledge, valuable as pieces of culture that have been nurtured up to now. And, within that traditional knowledge, there are many things that mankind will need in the future, such as knowledge of medicinal herbs, etc. - Disappearance of traditional knowledge (medicinal herbs, edible or poisonous mushrooms, etc.)

19 2. Conventional institutions 2) Relationships between government and local people
Relationships between governments and local people in Southeast Asian countries Sarawak, Malaysia In the demesne which indigenous people have cultivated since before 1958, Native Customary Rights are legally recognized. However, some debate remains about its boundary and interpretation. Indonesia Customary title to an estate had not been respected under the Suharto government. After the collapse of that government in 1998, laws were revised and customary title to an estate came to be recognized. However, local people sometimes demand the right to use the land where such uses are not permitted. In developed countries, the meaning of forests and natural environments as essential resources in daily living is in the process of vanishing. Whereas, in developing countries with tropical rainforests, there are still many people who greatly depend on nature like forests for their livelihoods. In such places, logging of forests or plantation development or over-strict nature conservation deprives local citizens of opportunities to use forests, and those citizens in turn lose or forget the techniques needed to make a livelihood. Consequently, in such countries, local people have held various discussions with governments to resolves such problems. Here, I would like to present 3 examples of such discussions in Malaysia (Sarawak), Indonesia and Thailand. First, in Sarawak, Malaysia, in the areas used by indigenous people since before 1958, Native Customary Rights (guaranteeing landownership) are legally recognized. However, some debate remains about boundaries and interpretation. For instance, the Government makes the interpretation where Native Customary Rights apply to land that has been cleared as arable land and residential land (including fallow forest); whereas, the locals interpret them as also applying to the forests in their natural state that they have always used for hunting and gathering. Next, in Indonesia, after Suharto’s dictatorial government collapsed, regional customs started to be taken more seriously amidst the move toward decentralization of power. However, during the transition period just after Suharto’s government collapsed, the political confusion was exploited, with illegal logging increasing and authorized local authorities implementing unsustainable policies, which, instead, meant that the destruction of forests increased. Furthermore, local people now often demand rights to use land where such uses are not permitted. Finally, in Thailand, in a different direction, laws establishing national forests were enacted in 1964, However, the laws do not function well, and illegal farming is commonplace in national forests. But, as far as the farmers are concerned, even though their farming is illegal, they are just following the customary rules they have always followed – namely, the clearing and cultivating of lands that have no owners. The Government realizes the problem, and thus tolerates the illegal farming, which is why the laws are ineffectual. Thailand Laws establishing national forests were enacted in 1964, and local people were legally excluded from the national forests. However, the laws do not actually function well.

20 Summary 2. Conventional institutions
Previous social systems have brought about the separation of humans from their natural environments - the most serious problem. In Southeast Asia, human activities are inhibited in NP or protected areas and massive developments have been progressing on the outside, so local people have lost their familiar forests. In developed countries, modernization has changed the relationships between humans and nature, and opportunities for contact with nature have been decreasing. Okay. Now let me summarize the second topic. To start with, the most serious problem is that previous social institutions (systems) have brought about the separation of humans from their natural environments. In Southeast Asia, human activities are restricted in national parks or protected areas and development is progressing on the outside, so local people lose their familiar forests. In developed countries, modernization has changed the relationships between humans and nature, and opportunities for contact with nature have been decreasing.

21 3. Actions for improving institutions
How we can establish institutions that effectively conserve biodiversity? 1) Community-based management (CBM) 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity 3) Flexible managements of protected areas Finally, today, I would like to talk about current actions concerning social institutions. In recent years, to combat the problems I spoke of in the second topic, moves are beginning to be made to reform institutions. Here, I would like to bring your attention to 3 representative improvements. Number 1 is community based management where the idea is that local people – not the state – will be entrusted with the task of looking after forests. Number 2 is sustainable utilization of biodiversity – for example, there will be no entrusting of management responsibility to local people, but, as in the past, the forests will be controlled by the state, with a third party acting as a certification agency to certify that forests are being sustainably maintained. I will explain this in detail a little later, but suffice it to say that this is not just about ecological sustainability but also is about the need to consider social aspects such as reaching agreements with local people. Number 3 is flexible managements of protected areas. This is an experiment to modify the extreme method of choosing either to conserve or develop an area by establishing in detail the level of protection within a refuge in order to achieve harmony with the lives of the local people. I gave a simple explanation of the design of such refuges in Chapter 8, so here I will talk in greater detail about the types of human uses.

22 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
Background of proposing CBM Who has the right to utilize forest resources? …Local people should receive more benefits. Consideration of profits & their division among local people Developing sustainable use of natural resources …Ecotourism, practical use of traditional knowledge, one-village one-specialty, etc. The background issues that have brought community based management of resources to the fore are ideologies that from a democracy and human rights viewpoint call for some kind of rights for people who have lived in forests for a long time, so that they can at least have a fair share of the profits. If local people can earn cash by utilizing natural resources both directly and indirectly through efforts such as tourism, the practical use of traditional knowledge (medicinal herbs, etc.) and 1 village, 1 product campaigns (where individual villages select a single specialty product each to be made from local resources), they can maintain their livelihoods while using natural resources sustainably. If the local people who were plunderers of natural resources become independent protectors of natural resources, then the conservation of natural resources can be hoped for. The costs of this approach can be kept to a minimum in comparison to state controlled conservation. Local people who were plunderers of natural resources become their protectors.

23 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
This photo shows mushroom picking in the northeast of Thailand. Mushrooms provide precious cash incomes for local people, and are examples of sustainable use of non-timber forest products. Therefore, if the rights to pick non-timber forest products are secured, the local people will see the forest’s use benefit, and will probably make an effort to manage the forest. Mushroom gathering in Northeast Thailand …Mushrooms provide precious cash incomes for local people, and are examples of sustainable use of non-timber forest products.

24 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
Problems difficult to solve 1. Organization of local people Is their right to speak protected? Is the division of profits among them fair? - Have these people secured sustainable use of natural resources? 2. Adjustment of interests with other organizations Nevertheless, we cannot just blindly entrust forest management to local people - it is not that simple – as several difficult problems have to be resolved. The first necessity is to organize the local people. In local communities, it is often the case that people do not have freedom of speech or fair distribution of profits. And, if there are villagers not getting a fair share of the profits, it is very likely they will use up community resources without permission in order to survive. On top of that, communal resources, such as a forest, might straddle several villages. In which case, even though the people in your village are using the forest resources sustainably, people from the other villages may come along and plunder those resources, making sustainable utilization of the forest unviable. And, it is very difficult work to form an organization that will preside over forest management to ensure problems like this get resolved, decision making takes place among the villagers and resources get used sustainably. Thus, a model attracting a lot of attention as something that enables local communities to manage shared resources in (comparatively) sustainable manner is the Japanese iriai method, which comprises a strong village association group implementing mechanisms that provide mutual monitoring and penalties. Yet, further inspection, tells us that this kind of traditional village association approach is rarely seen outside of Japan. Therefore, it does take a lot of time and effort to form such a citizen’s group in a location where it has never existed. In some cases, it certainly does need support from external NGOs during the startup period. In addition, in setting out to establish local community management of a forest, adjustments of interests with other external organizations involved with the forest also will have to be a priority. The forming of the organization is vital for producing a unified will among the citizens. Nevertheless, in cases where the external organization is the government or a major corporation, the strength wielded is completely different, making the mere vigor of the local people ineffective. Seen in this way, it is easy to understand that these problems are not just the problems of the local community, they are the problems of all people and groups involved in the region in question. These problems concern not only local communities but also interrelationships of actors from the local community level to the national level.

25 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
This photo shows a preparation meeting among villagers and NGOs and officials in a Thai village. The meeting is working out the details of the group needed to establish a forest zone to be newly managed by the community. This particular village is not that old, and the villagers have yet to develop trusting relationships amongst themselves, so, alas, the forming of an organization was unsuccessful. However, as an opportunity for various people with conflicting interests to come together and talk, it was a great success. Local people, NGOs and government officials assembled in one hall, and organized a working group for setting the limits of a community forest.

26 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
The eyes of international society Social structures of CBM NGOs & Citizens Government & forest department Observation / criticism Discussion / rejection Demand for aboriginal rights Permits and licenses / instruction Support of campaigns Demand for cooperation Use fees As I mentioned earlier, to manage resources in a local community, adjustments have to be made to accommodate outside interests. Therefore, not just the village but also the overall social composition of that nation has to be taken into consideration. So, from that viewpoint, this slide presents a rough image of social relationships. Here, some local people ask the government for the rights to manage and use familiar natural resources such as a forest. The local people protest against outsiders like logging companies that threaten their natural resources. Nevertheless, those outside corporations also are trading partners because they provide work for local people and purchase local products. Furthermore, in some cases, such outsiders provide assistance by contributing money to infrastructure projects. The relationship between an outside corporation and the local people fluctuates depending on the conduct of the corporation. The action taken by local people to request rights is supported on the knowledge and financial fronts mainly by NGOs, etc. And, the citizens at the core of the NGOs involved often are devoted to supporting local people in their drive for rights based on the principles of human rights and democracy. And it is the relationship between government and NGOs that determines the style of action taken by NGOs and their influence over the local people concerned. Naturally, there are some NGOs that are approved of by government and others that are not. Between government and business (corporations) the relationship involves approval and guidance for the utilization of resources and the payment of the standard charges for that approval and guidance. These kinds of social relationships within a single country are watched over by international society - especially in terms of human rights, democracy and environmental conservation - with criticism being voiced at times. Local people’s rights are decided by the power relationships shown in this slide. Therefore, if the power relationships differ, the rights conferred on local people will differ too. Companies Sales of forest products / protest Local people Employment & financial support / infringement of aboriginal rights

27 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
Indonesia Decentralization and CBM Since the collapse of the Suharto government, CBM has been rapidly spreading with decentralization. Logging traders, governmental officers, NGOs and local people held a forum. However, overuse of timber by local people has become a problem. For the proposal in principle, but against particular details Thailand Since the orders forbidding logging were issued in 1989, community forests have spread all over the country. The Community Forest Bill was passed in November, 2007. …In both countries, NGOs, experts and forest agencies support local people. Now, using examples of 3 countries in Southeast Asia with tropical rainforests, I would like to give you a simple explanation about the differences in citizen based management of forests as seen from the political and social composition of the previous slide. First, we have Indonesia. As I mentioned in Topic 2, the Suharto dictatorial government collapsed in 1998, and decentralization increased. Within that, interested parties at regional level came together, and adjusted their interests, to enable experimental citizen based management of forest to get underway. Alas, as the social and economic platforms are insufficient for the sustained use of the forest by local people, reports state that there are cases of people opting to make quick short-term profit via actions such as excessive logging. Next, in the Thai example, commercial logging had progressed to the point where vast amounts of forest were disappearing, and so commercial logging was completely banned in After that, as a method of managing forests, nature refuges were established to conserve forests, with local people using forests outside of the nature refuges and managing them more and more as community forests. At this time, there was debate about putting community forest in to statutory law, but agreement could not be reached on whether to let local people manage nature-rich forests like refuges, so establishment of the law took quite some time, finally being concluded in November 2007. In Indonesia and Thailand, we can now see some experimental attempts by NGOs, experts, forest agencies and local citizens to manage forests together. In Sarawak, Malaysia, state government runs commercial forests and state-owned forests. Logging companies take care of local society by providing local people with some of the logging profits. Sarawak, Malaysia The state government fully controls the forests. Part of the profits from logging is divided among local people.

28 3. Actions for improving institutions 1) CBM
This photo was taken in a farming village in the State of Ubon Ratchathani in the northeast of Thailand. Here, the forest agency and villagers have come together to plant trees in order to further enhance the community forest. Many volunteers – from adults to schoolchildren – took part in the planting. In this way, we can see that government-people relationships can work well even without the mediation of NGOs. Forest department and local people planting trees together to create community forest. (Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand)

29 For utilizing biological resources without damage to biodiversity…
3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity For utilizing biological resources without damage to biodiversity… Outside protected areas… Logging methods which minimize the influence on the ecosystem, while considering the local community Forest certification system …Essential for conserving biodiversity of tropical rainforests. In protected areas… Sightseeing attractions and genetic resources Ecotourism: utilization of protected areas, considering their carrying capacities Genetic resources: adjustment of interests between developed and developing countries. Next, I would like us to take a look at experiments in combining conservation and utilization of biodiversity. The 2 methods we have in this slide concern how to utilize biodiversity without destroying it. First, let us look at a method for logging outside of a protected area. With commercial logging, whatever is done, there is no escaping damage to biodiversity. However, in a logging region, the money filtering into the local economy from commercial logging makes that logging essential for socioeconomic reasons in some cases. And, in such cases, the logging method needs to be one that will have the least impact on the ecosystem, and consideration must be given to ensuring that local people do not lose out. For these to happen, a forest certification system can be introduced, with wide-ranging standards set, where only the logging areas and loggers that meet the criteria of those standards are allowed to produce timber products authenticated (certificated) by a third party as sustainable timber and products made from sustainable timber. It is difficult to stop commercial logging in regions where forests are still abundant – therefore, the certification system, which is geared to making commercial logging more sustainable, has an important role to play in forest biodiversity conservation. I will talk in greater detail about the forest certification system in the following slide. Next, let us look at activities in protected areas. In cases where areas have been designated as protected areas already, such as national parks, or in other cases where social consensus has prevented commercial logging, forest ecotourism combined with the upkeep of the remaining abundant biodiversity and supply of genetic resources would be an effective way of using biodiversity. Nevertheless, in the case of ecotourism, too many tourists can become too great a load on the environment, so consideration must be given to the impact on the ecosystem in question. In the case of genetic resources, interests need to be adjusted between developed countries with biotechnology industries and developing countries with the natural resources. Also, pharmaceutical corporations must not be allowed to arbitrarily cull medicinal plants to develop new drugs and monopolize the vast profits. To prevent these problems occurring, the biodiversity treaty includes agreements on how profits should be fairly distributed between developed and developing countries.

30 3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity
Distinction of sustainably-managed forest products: forest certification system A third-party institution examines sustainability of forest products. … Consumers can get information and choose products. E.g., paper with FSC logo The price is slightly higher than usual. I want to buy ecologically friendly products even if they are a little expensive. Now, let us look at the certification institution. With the forest certification system, the authenticating body certifies products as being sustainable ones, and such products can then carry the certification logo. The photo in this slide shows packaging for copier paper. The logo denotes that the paper product is made of 70 percent old paper, and 17.5 percent of the remaining 30 percent comes from woodchip carrying the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certificate. The logo enables consumers to discern whether or not a product is environmentally friendly. Moreover, a corporation producing copier paper that uses FSC-certified woodchip is able to promote an eco-friendly corporate image to consumers. In developed countries, many regional authorities are obligated to use certified products for public use such as government procurement.

31 FSC (Forest Stewardship Council)
3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) Biggest certification authority of forest products Non-profit organization independent of national government or international agencies Consists of various interested parties; decides policies after consultation Establishes standards for designation according to the situation of each country, based on 10 principles (e.g., minimizing influence on ecosystem, protecting rights of indigenous people and profits of local communities, upholding the rights of laborers, and meticulously managing plans while monitoring their implementation) The most famous forest certification body is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) seated in Germany. FSC is a non-profit organization independent of national governments and international agencies. This council is comprised of global representatives from conservationist groups, forest managers, indigenous peoples and forest unions. In this way, representatives of various conflicting interests come together to mutually agree on measures to be implemented. FSC has set 10 principles as the criteria for approval that is common across the globe. Based on these principles, the certification bodies of individual countries work with FSC to decide specific certification standards, and establish individual check items that take into consideration each countries situation. Besides items that aim to minimize the impacts on ecosystems, others include those related to social problems, such as upholding the rights of local people to use forest resources and upholding the rights of laborers who work on the logging sites. In addition, to achieve these goals, items are included to ensure the creation of managing plans with in-built monitoring to check the results. There are 2 kinds of certification: “forest management” to provide certification at the logging stage and “chain of custody” that traces logistics and processing of timber products to provide product certification. There are cases where these 2 kinds of certification are combined to investigate sustainable utilization. Two kinds of certification Certification of forest management and chain of custody … Products which receive certification are permitted to display FSC logo.

32 Protected forest in Deramakot, Sabah, Malaysia
3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity Protected forest in Deramakot, Sabah, Malaysia  この写真は、 サバ州デラマコット保護林のFSCの認証状と、この保護林で試験的におこなわれていた架線集材の様子です。架線集材は現在はおこなわれていませんが、計画的な林道整備など、低インパクト伐採の手法は引き続き採用されています。 Here we have photos of an FSC certificate for a protected forest in Deramakot, Sabah, Malaysia and an experimental aerial system for overhead gathering of timber in a protected forest. This aerial system is not being used at present, but other methods – such as constructively planned forest roads – are being implemented to lower the impact of logging. Timbers are carried overhead by an aerial system which minimizes damage to soil and living trees. Certification of attestation from FSC

33 Problems of Forest Certification System
3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity Problems of Forest Certification System 1. High cost Cost for certification Cost of reduced impact logging Company’s losses from ban on monopolistic logging 2. All costs cannot be recovered. However, problems still exist with the forest certification system. First, it is expensive. This is not just because certification work comes at a price. Compared to conventional logging methods, low-impact logging is expensive. Added to which, local people are allowed to use resources and have rights, which means monopolistic logging can no longer be conducted as it was in the past – thus, profits probably have become smaller. Yet, this does not mean that certified timber sells at a higher price to cover costs involved in certifying. Currently, logging corporations bear the brunt of these costs because they want to enhance their public image. Due to these factors, certification has struggled to become popular. Surely, if a decision were made on a global scale to use certified materials for at least public schemes, the price of timber would rise with the added demand, and companies would have a greater incentive to gain certification. The market price of timber is not high enough to cover the cost.

34 Certified palm oil (28 companies, 49 facilities)
3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity Distinction of sustainably-managed palm oil: Roundtable on sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO, founded in 2004) RSPO promotes the growth and use of sustainable oil palm products through credible global standards and engagement of stakeholders. Certified palm oil (28 companies, 49 facilities) 1.56 million tons, 0.3 million ha (as of Mar. 2010) Malaysia 48%, Papua 29%, Indonesia 23% In 2004, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) started certifying palm oil plantations. RSPO certifies sustainably managed palm oil plantations that take responsibility for the environment and biodiversity as well as promoting the popularization of palm oil produced at certified plantations. At present, most certified palm oil is exported to Europe. Nevertheless, this does not mean that the conversion of tropical forests into plantations is being restricted, but RSPO is trying to broaden the approaches linked to consideration of biodiversity in plantations and contributions to local societies. As of March 2010, 49 facilities in 28 countries have received palm oil certification. Of these, 48 percent are in Malaysia, 29 percent in Papua New Guinea and 23 percent in Indonesia.

35 - Non-profit organization consisting of 7 stakeholders.
3. Actions for improving institutions 2) Sustainable utilization of biodiversity RSPO - Non-profit organization consisting of 7 stakeholders. Stakeholders are oil palm producers, palm oil processors or traders, consumer goods manufacturers, retailers, banks and investors, environmental or nature conservation NGOs and social or developmental NGOs. 8 principles, 39 criteria,130 indicators (e.g., environmental responsibility and conservation of natural resources and biodiversity, responsible consideration for employees and for individuals and communities affected by growers and mills, responsible development of new plantings) RSPO is a certifying body with its association seat in Switzerland. It is a non-profit organization comprising representatives from various interested parties such as palm oil producers, trading companies that export palm oil, consumers, retailers, investors and environment NGOs. RSPO has 8 principles, 39 criteria and 130 indicators. Examples of these include: certified companies must take responsibility for natural resources and biodiversity and work to conserve them, and certified companies must take responsibility for individual people and communities affected by the production (growing and milling) of palm oil. At present, RSPO is discussing problems such as the restriction of palm oil plantation development in primary forest or HCVF, consideration of local community customary rights and the problem of pollution due to palm oil milling. Under discussion - Prohibit replacement of primary forest or HCVF (High Conservation Value Forests) after Nov. 2005 - Customary rights of local communities - Pollution from mills

36 Design of protected areas
3. Actions for improving institutions 3) Flexible management of protected areas Design of protected areas – Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) Protected area is divided into three areas according to the intensity of human utilization. Out of protected area Core area (No human activities permitted.) Buffer area For the final section of this chapter, we are looking at the management of protected areas. As the design of protected areas was explained in Chapter 8, only a brief review will be given here. By dividing the land outside of a core area into areas where intensity of utilization varies, and by applying fixed rules to the utilization, etc., of those areas, sustainable use of the land can be promoted. For example, if farmers who have had their land taken in payment for debts can have access to a transition area, they will tend to use it rather than break the law by cultivating or logging the core area, which will at least protect the biodiversity in the core area. Transition area (Human activities permitted to some extent.) (UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Program) 36

37 World Commission of Protected Areas (WCPA)
3. Actions for improving institutions 3) Flexible management of protected areas Management of protected areas Protected areas are categorized into seven types by IUCN according to their purposes and intensities of human activities (See column). World Commission of Protected Areas (WCPA) Ia. Strict Nature Reserve Ib. Wilderness Area II. National Park III. Natural Monument IV. Habitat/Species Management Area V. Protected Landscape/Seascape VI. Managed Resource Protected Area With MAB, it is assumed that there will be human activities, even in core areas of protected areas. So, there are cases where protection strictness is set at detailed levels in accordance with the intensity of human activities taking place. This slide shows the categories for protected areas adopted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in And, the organization commissioned to help arrange these categories is the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). Each of the different aims of the categories are listed in the column, so please refer to it for details. A point of interest is that not only are uses kept to those assumed to be the norm for protected areas, such as tourism and scientific research, but also consideration is given to utilization by local people. So, we can see that IUCN aim is to preserve the relationships between mankind and nature, respect cultural diversity and the rights of indigenous people, while at the same time conserving biodiversity. The flexibility of such management is the ability to appraise the attempts to move away from the simple dualism encompassed in the idea of primary nature and anything outside of that (namely, areas developed by people). Local people are permitted to live in these protected areas unless they impede the above purposes.

38 Forest of Shirakami, Japan, which is categorized as Ib
3. Actions for improving institutions 3) Flexible management of protected areas This slide shows a Japanese beech forest in the Shirakami area, which comes under the Ib category of protected areas. Forest of Shirakami, Japan, which is categorized as Ib

39 Column: Purposes of Protected Areas
Management purpose of each protected area Ia Ib II III IV V VI Scientific research 1 3 2 Wilderness protection - Biodiversity conservation Ecosystem protection Conservation of specific natural and cultural features Recreation Education Sustainable use of natural ecosystem Conservation of cultural and traditional features With WCPA’s 7 categories, we can see the differences between purpose of use and order of priority. In category 1a, the strictest protection category, purposes of use are extremely limited – whereas, as the numbers get bigger, the greater the variety of uses is allowed. 1: first purpose 2: second purpose 3: third purpose (IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas 1994)

40 Summary 3. Actions for improving institutions
If the right of utilization of natural resources is given to local people, they often stop plundering them and come to conserve and manage those resources. It is possible for conservation and utilization of biodiversity to coexist if we sustainably utilize natural resources. For that purpose, we need systems such as Forest Certification System or RSPO, in which consumers can recognize whether or not a manufactured good has been produced in consideration of biodiversity conservation. Design or managements of protected areas are also planned in consideration of local people. Now I would like to summarize the third topic. First, local community management of resources achieved by getting local people who were resource plunders to protect and manage local resources of their own will is an effective way of conserving biodiversity. Second, if resources are used sustainably, there is a possibility that biodiversity conservation and utilization can coexist. Here, systems where consumers can “purchase environments” with money – such as the forest certification system – become important factors. Third, with regard to the designs and management options for protected areas, local people have to be given consideration just as biodiversity conservation does.

41 Summary of Today’s Topics
How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - 1. Relationships among international society, countries, various civic organizations, NGOs and local people are highly intricate. For conservation of biodiversity, adjustment of their conflicting interests is essential. 2. In the past, the profits of biodiversity usually belonged to countries. Nowadays, however, national governments come to consider the sustainable use of biodiversity not only for national profits but also for utilization by local people. Now let me summarize the entire lecture. First, implemented to conserve biodiversity, social institutions are used to skillfully adjust various conflicting interests in society. If such adjustments are not made, conservation efforts will be futile, however high the ideals are for biodiversity conservation. Second, with conventional state-controlled forest management, there were many problems in the facet of implementation and the facet of the people-nature relationship lost due to that implementation. In recent years, this relationship problem has been given more consideration, and new institutions have been created to accommodate the relationships with local people. Nevertheless, as I have said before, such new institutions (systems) can be only enacted once thorough adjustments have been made to the conflicting interests in society. Therefore, however well crafted the institutions are as treaties or as laws, they will serve no practical use unless they equip societies with mechanisms to adjust the situations between the many interested parties and resolve the conflicts. Third, for conservation of biodiversity, social institutions that build dialogue and trust among society are essential. 3. For conservation of biodiversity, social systems which enable people to adjust their interests and construct relationships of trust are essential.

42 Let’s do the exercises below:
1. In a village, suppose illegal logging is common. If you are an officer of the forest department, which of the following three measures would you choose? Explain your reasons. a) Increase the number of guards to arrest a person illegally logging and punish him severely. b) Give a subsidy to the village on the condition that villagers will stop illegal logging. The following are some examples of how you might answer. Giving the villagers some kind of incentive to protect the forest is the key to the situation. However, this is not to say that “this is correct”, as each measure embraces its own problems. a) Providing guards costs a lot of money, making them unrealistic (note that incurring this expense may be the only way in cases where strict conservation is needed to truly remove human activities). In addition, there is a possibility that restricting local utilization of the forest concerned will threaten the lifestyle of the local people, which may lead to increased poverty and cause human rights problems. b) Villagers probably will stop illegal logging if given a subsidy larger than the income made from illegal logging (this requires a monitoring system). However, villagers will become dependant on the subsidy, and probably lose their social and economic independence (self-reliance), which means the subsidy must be provided permanently. c) If the villagers can sustainably earn income by protecting or sustainably using resources, the measure is effective. If all goes well, the villagers will act independently, which lowers costs and is effective in practical terms. Currently, this approach is favored with regard to development of sustainable farming villages. Nevertheless, villagers must be organized to handle issues such as fair division of profit, mutual monitoring to ensure that no villager breaks the rules, creation of mechanisms to enable decision making that reflects all the villagers’ opinions in order to actually manage resources. All of these take time and effort. c) Make villagers discuss the forest, and manage and utilize it as the common property of their village.

43 Let’s do the exercises below:
2. What kind of interests do people in developed countries have in tropical rainforests? Give your own free answers. Earth is a single planet, so, naturally, even the citizens of far-off developed nations feel they have an interest in tropical rainforests. - Among the ecosystem services provided by tropical rainforests, there are some that have direct impacts on our lives (absorption of carbon dioxide, genetic resources [namely, medicinal drugs], tourist resources). We will lose these ecosystem services if tropical rainforests are destroyed. - We must bear the cost in order to conserve the biodiversity of tropical rainforests. Around the globe, there are many ways in which the cost can be handled – for example, people purchase expensive certified materials. - If the ecosystems in the tropical region are destroyed, and climate instability occurs, food shortages and poverty will hit that region. And, countries that depend on food imports will be affected.

44 Glossary (1/2) Carrying capacity
The limits of human activities which an environment can sustain without any damage Carrying capacity Forest which local people jointly manage and utilize. There are two types: those which local people have customarily managed, and those which governments entrust local people to manage. Community forest Acronym for non-governmental organization. NGOs are expected in a society to supplement what governmental measures cannot provide, and to play a “watchdog” role in relation to government and business. NGO Matter or factor which motivates or encourages someone to do (or stop doing) something. See Chapter 10 in detail. Incentive

45 Reduced impact logging The Suharto government
Glossary (2/2) Methods of logging which minimize damage to an ecosystem. See Chapter 8 in detail. Reduced impact logging Government of Indonesia from 1968 to It had strong backing from the army and achieved economic development, but also brought official corruption. The Suharto government Sites considered by UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to be worth preserving as treasures that belong to all human beings. There are four categories: Cultural Heritage, Natural Heritage, Compound Heritage and Crisis Heritage. World Heritage

46 References (1/2) IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (1994) Guideline for Protected Area Management Categories. Peluso, N. L. (1992) Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of California Press. Stevens, S. (ed.) (1997) Conservation through Cultural Survival. Island Press. Sayer, J. (1991) Rainforest Buffer Zones: Guidelines for Protected Area Managers. International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Colfer, C. J. P. and Ida, A. P. R. (eds.) (2002) Which Way Forward?: People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia. Resources for the Future. Fujita, W. (2004) Creating Community Forests: Comparative Analysis of Socio-political Structure in Thailand and Indonesia. (Paper presented at the 3rd Asian Public Intellectuals Workshop)

47 References (2/2) Fujita, W. (2006)
Will contradiction be solved? – Expansion of measures to conserve forest. Asian Study 52. (In Japanese)

48 Cited Websites Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil
World Commission on Protected Areas

49 How can we conserve biodiversity?
Authors & Credits The Futurability of Biodiversity Chapter 9 How can we conserve biodiversity? - Institutions - Authors Wataru Fujita Masahiro Ichikawa Daisuke Naito Kentaro Kanazawa Aya Hatada Stewart Wachs Martin Piddington Application software Microsoft PowerPoint® Illustration & design Be4°TECH Koubou Yecoruka Photos Aya Hatada Biodiversity Photos Echigo-Matsunoyama Museum of Natural Science, ‘Kyororo’ Hiromitsu Samejima Shoko Sakai Shumpei Kitamura Takakazu Yumoto Tohru Nakashizuka Toyooka city, Hyogo prefecture Wataru Fujita Yasunori Maezono

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