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Intro to B & W Photography, silver based for non Photo Majors
PHOTOGRAPHY: Invented early 19th century (1839) - is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on light-sensitive material; light sensitive material such as film or an electronic sensor (digitally) - film based photography: light reflected or emitted from objects would expose film or paper made up of sensitive silver halide (a compound) -the word photography comes from the French photographie based on the Greek word PHOS for light and GRAPHIS for graphe or paintbrush together meaning drawing with light.
PHOTOGRAPHY: Multi-functional: creative/pictorial/artistic advertising (sell products) record events (war, health, cultures, politics) Pre-photoshop - a photo was considered to be reality/truth; we no longer accept a photograph as reality
A PHOTO is a representation, it tells us: -about the photographer and his/her perception about the subject photographed -about the technology used to create the image -our, the viewers perception of the subject depicted
Film Sensitivity Is defined using the photographic term ISO ISO International Standards Organization that sets film sensitive to light. ISO is the films sensitivity to light. We will study the reason for using different ISO s and their characteristics later in the semester but for now lets focus on its importance in image exposure.
Exposure Exposure = Intensity of Light (X) Time Intensity of Light is controlled by the aperture in the cameras lens, which is referred to as an f/stop. Time is controlled by the shutter in the cameras body, which is referred to as shutter speeds. The cameras ISO (sensitivity to light) will determine how much Intensity of Light (X) Time will be needed to make a correct Exposure
Unit Of Measurement The unit of measurement used to measure light is called a Stop. ·The term stop is confusing due to having multiple meanings. ISO also uses the measurement of a Stop Lens f/stop uses the measurement of a Stop Shutter Speeds use the measurement of a Stop
Full - f/stops
F-stops either double or half as you move from one to the other 2X (double) 1/2X (half)
Full Shutter Speeds
Full shutter speeds either double or half as you move from one to the other 2X - 1/2X
Full ISOs ISO ISO 100 200 400 800
Full ISOs either double or half as you move from one to the other 1/2X - 2X ISOISOISOISO 100200400800
Range of f/stops The lowest f/stop is determined by the speed of the lens and will be different from camera to camera or lens to lens. Zoom lenses have variable Fstops and change as you adjust the focal length (or zoom in and out.) f/1, f/1.2, f/1.4, f/1.8, f/2, f/2.8 (full stops) f/3.2, f/3.5, f/4, f/4.5, f/5.0, f5.6, f/6.3, f/7.1, f/8, f/9, f/10, f/11, f/13, f/14, f/16, f/18, f/20, f/22, f/25, f/29, f/32,………f/256 (1/3 stops) We will refer to Fstops in full stops, but most cameras have 1/3 stops
Range of Shutter Speeds The slowest shutter speed on any type of camera is B = bulb or T= time. Both allow you to hold open the shutter for an unlimited amount of time. (Slowest) 1, 08, 06, 05, 04, 03, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 320, 400, 500, 640, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000, 2500, 3200, 4000- (Fastest) Note: Shutter Speeds are written: 1, 1/2…..1/60……1/250
Range of ISOs ISO 50, ISO 100, ISO 200, ISO 400, ISO 800, ISO 1600, ISO 3200 Grain occurs when the bits of silver form and clump together.
Film Grain and ISO ISO3200 - more sensitive (faster) Used for shooting in dim light Disadvantage: Increased grain Decreased contrast Loss of sharpness
Intro to the darkroom
Bring to class next week: -camera and manual -readings (see outline)
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