Presentation on theme: "Lords institute of engineering and technology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lords institute of engineering and technology WelcomeToLords institute of engineering and technologyMechanical DepartmentBatch
2 Automatic control of railway gate Mini project onAutomatic control of railway gate
3 What is an embedded system? II In builtEmbedded System =Computer Inside a Product
4 Embedded SystemEmbedded system is combination of hardware & software for specific application.Embedded system means the processor is embedded into that application.An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one task only.In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM.
5 How an embedded system works..? It works with the help of both the hardware and software requirementsHardware: processor, memories, peripherals, power supply etc..,Software: assembly language program (ALP) like c, c++ ..,
6 Types of embedded systems Simple embedded systemex: small electrical equipments completes its work with in the approximated timeComplex embedded systemex: used in military missiles for target based system
7 Examples of embedded systems Electronic devices in the kitchenE.g.: bread machines, food processors,microwave ovensLiving RoomsE.g.: televisions, stereos, remote controlsWork placesE.g.: fax, pagers, laser printers, cashregisters, credit card readers
12 Micro controllerThe first micro controller was implemented in by a car company wolves wagons in their cars.The 1st micro controller (8048) was developed by Intel in 1976.
13 Found in 1984.Corporate headquarters located in San Jose, California.AVR basic architecture was developed by two students ‘Alf- Egil Bogen’and ‘Vegard Wollan’ at the Norwegian Institute of Technology.IP Core was sold to Atmel by Alf and Vegard
14 ATMEL AT89C, AT90S, AT Mega, ATCANAT MegaAT Mega 8 , AT Mega 8515AT Mega 8535, AT Mega 16AT Mega 32, AT Mega 162,…………
15 AT Mega Microcontroller AT represents the name of the manufacturing company “ATMEL”.ATMEL Advanced Technology Memory End LogicMEGAClock Frequency of the micro controller (1MHz)
16 Features of ATMega8515 40 Pin IC, PDIP package High-performance, Low-power AVR 8-bit MicrocontrollerRISC Architecture130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single Clock Cycle Execution32 x 8 General Purpose Working RegistersProgram and Data Memories8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash512 Bytes EEPROMEndurance: 100,000 Write/Erase Cycles512 Bytes Internal SRAM35 Programmable I/O Lines
17 Pin configuration From 1-40 1 Vcc 40 39 Port B Port A 8 9 10 32 ATMEGA 8515ResetICP31ALE30OC1BPort D292817Port CXTAL218XTAL119GND2021
18 Memories in AT Mega Data Memory Temporary EEPROM Permanent Flash Memory/Programmable Memory Permanent
19 Data Memory General Purpose Registers (G.P.R) 32 registers R0 to R31 Each 8 bitsI/O Registers 64 Each 8 bitsSRAM 512 bytes
20 Memory Mapping of Data Memory $0000G. P. R$001F$0020I/O Registers$005F$0060SRAM$025F
21 Register Pairs / Indirect Addressing R r x pairR y pairz pairR27R29R31R26R28R30$025F$ R27$5F R26RahRal
22 Status RegisterIt is an 8 bit Special register where each bit in the register represents a Flag.ZeroInterruptZeroNegativeBit StoreOver flowSignHalf carry
24 Working of IR pairsPower supplyIR transmitterIR receivercomparator
25 DETECTION FACTORS:Six factors typically affect the Probability of Detection (Pd) of most area surveillance (volumetric) sensors, although to varying degrees.These are the:1) Amount and pattern of emitted energy;2) Size of the object;3) Distance to the object;4) Speed of the object;5) Direction of movement
26 SENSORS APPLICATIONS: Most sensors have been designed with a specific application in mind.The environment categorizes these applications where they are most commonly employed.The two basic environments or categories are exterior and interior.Each of the two basic categories has a number of sub-sets, such as fence, door, window, hallway, and room.The first two of the following set of graphics show a “FREE TREE” illustration of the sensors most applicable to the these two environments.
32 PRECAUTIONIf the stepper motor moves slightly and/or queers hack and forth, there are a number of possible causes.If you are using a battery power supply, the batteries may be too weak to power the motor properly.Note; Batteries wear out quickly because the current draw from stepper motors is usually high.If you substituted another transistor for the TIP120 NPN transistor, the substitute transistor may not be switching properly or the current load of the stepper motor may be too great. Solution; use TIPO120 transistors.You have the stepper motor improperly wired into the circuit. Check the coils using an ohmmeter and rewire if necessary.The pulse frequency is too high. If the pulses to the stepper moor are going faster that the motor can react, the motor will malfunction.
33 ConclusionThis is to conclude that this project Automatic control of railway gate is useful to know when the train is passes through the gate, and to close or open the gate automatically as the train is about to reach the gate. Through which accidents can be avoided as people tend to cross the track in spite the gate is being closed