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Metodologi Penelitian

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1 Metodologi Penelitian
September 2011 Magister Teknik Elektro Universitas Udayana

2 What is research? What is methodology? What is research method? What is scientific research? What is research methodology? Etc …

3 This inquisitiveness (curiosity) is the mother of all knowledge;
Research a search for knowledge a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic An art of scientific investigation The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English: “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge. A movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. This inquisitiveness (curiosity) is the mother of all knowledge; Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense

4 According to Clifford Woody
research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment

5 Objectives of Research
To discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures To find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies); To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies); To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies)

6 Motives for doing research
Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work; Desire to be of service to society; Desire to get respectability

7 The basic types of research
Descriptive vs. Analytical: Descriptive Research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present. The main characteristic: the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data. to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables. Survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlational methods. In analytical research: the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material

8 Applied vs. Fundamental: Research can either be applied (or action) research or fundamental (to basic or pure) research. Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization Facing a concrete social or business problem to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research. ”Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics

9 Quantitative vs. Qualitative:
Quantitative research Based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research concerned with qualitative phenomenon For instance, when we are interested in investigating the reasons for human behaviour (i.e., why people think or do certain things), we quite often talk of ‘Motivation Research’, an important type of qualitative research. Aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires, using in depth interviews Other techniques: word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests and similar other projective techniques. Attitude or opinion research i.e., research designed to find out how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution important in the behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour. Through such research we can analyse the various factors which motivate people to behave in a particular manner or which make people like or dislike a particular thing.

10 Conceptual research Empirical research
that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. Empirical research Relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. it is necessary to get at facts firsthand, at their source, and actively to go about doing certain things to stimulate the production of desired information. The researcher must first provide himself with a working hypothesis or guess as to the probable results. He then works to get enough facts (data) to prove or disprove his hypothesis. He then sets up experimental designs which he thinks will manipulate the persons or the materials concerned so as to bring forth the desired information. Such research is thus characterised by the experimenter’s control over the variables under study and his deliberate manipulation of one of them to study its effects.

11 Some Other Types of Research:
based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor. one-time research or longitudinal research One-time research: the research is confined to a single time-period, Longitudinal research: the research is carried on over several time-periods. field-setting research or laboratory research or simulation research, depending upon the environment in which it is to be carried out clinical or diagnostic research Such research follow case-study methods or in depth approaches to reach the basic causal relations. Such studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that interest us, using very small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices. The research may be exploratory or it may be formalized The objective of exploratory research is the development of hypotheses rather than their testing Formalized research studies are those with substantial structure and with specific hypotheses to be tested.

12 Conclusion oriented research
Historical research utilizes historical sources like documents, remains, etc. to study events or ideas of the past, including the philosophy of persons and groups at any remote point of time Conclusion oriented research a researcher is free to pick up a problem, redesign the enquiry as he proceeds and is prepared to conceptualize as he wishes. Decision-oriented research the need of a decision maker and the researcher in this case is not free to embark upon research according to his own inclination. Operations research is an example of decision oriented research since it is a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding operations under their control.

13 Quantitative approach
Research Approaches: quantitative approach and the qualitative approach Quantitative approach involves the generation of data in quantitative form which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid fashion. It can be further sub-classified into inferential, experimental and simulation approaches to research. The purpose of inferential approach to research is to form a data base from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population. This usually means survey research where a sample of population is studied (questioned or observed) to determine its characteristics, and it is then inferred that the population has the same characteristics. Experimental approach is characterised by much greater control over the research environment and in this case some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables. Simulation approach involves the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated. This permits an observation of the dynamic behaviour of a system (or its sub-system) under controlled conditions.

14 Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behaviour generates results either in non-quantitative form or in the form which are not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis. Generally, the techniques of focus group interviews, projective techniques and depth interviews are used. All these are explained at length in chapters that follow

15 Significance of Research
(i) investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts; (ii) diagnosis of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them; (iii) the prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments. Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry. Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.

16 The significance of research
(a) To those students to write a master’s or Ph.D. thesis, research may mean a careerism or a way to attain a high position in the social structure; (b) To professionals research may mean a source of livelihood; (c) To philosophers and thinkers research may mean the outlet for new ideas and insights; (d) To literary men and women research may mean the development of new styles and creative work; (e) To analysts and intellectuals research may mean the generalizations of new theories.

17 Research methods can be put into the following three groups:
1. Those methods which are concerned with the collection of data. These methods will be used where the data already available are not sufficient to arrive at the required solution; 2. Those statistical techniques which are used for establishing relationships between the data and the unknowns; 3. Those methods which are used to evaluate the accuracy of the results obtained.

18 Thus, research methodology
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem Research methodology has many dimensions Research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. Thus, research methodology Not only about the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. For examples: Why a research study has been undertaken, How the research problem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted, why particular technique of analysing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.

19 The scientific method 1. It relies on empirical evidence;
2. It utilizes relevant concepts; 3. It is committed to only objective considerations; 4. It presupposes ethical neutrality, i.e., it aims at nothing but making only adequate and correct statements about population objects; 5. It results into probabilistic predictions; 6. Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication; 7. It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories.

20 Scientific method implies an objective, logical and systematic method, i.e.,
a method free from personal bias or prejudice, a method to ascertain demonstrable qualities of a phenomenon capable of being verified, a method wherein the researcher is guided by the rules of logical reasoning, a method wherein the investigation proceeds in an orderly manner and a method that implies internal consistency.

21 Research Process

22 Scientific research to satisfy the following criteria:
1. The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. 2. The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. 3. The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. 4. The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings. 5. The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be checked carefully. 6. Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis. 7. Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.

23 The qualities of a good research:
1. Good research is systematic: It means that research is structured with specified steps to be taken in a specified sequence in accordance with the well defined set of rules. Systematic characteristic of the research does not rule out creative thinking but it certainly does reject the use of guessing and intuition in arriving at conclusions. 2. Good research is logical: This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and the logical process of induction and deduction are of great value in carrying out research. Induction is the process of reasoning from a part to the whole whereas deduction is the process of reasoning from some premise to a conclusion which follows from that very premise. In fact, logical reasoning makes research more meaningful in the context of decision making. 3. Good research is empirical: It implies that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a real situation and deals with concrete data that provides a basis for external validity to research results. 4. Good research is replicable: This characteristic allows research results to be verified by replicating the study and thereby building a sound basis for decisions.

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