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1 S8 How to develop classroom talk at KS3 & 4

2 Objective To help delegates promote KS3-4 students' use of target language (TL) for day-to-day social communication and for talking about their work.

3 classroom talk vs talking in the classroom Discuss

4 E.g. for: classroom routines communicating lesson objectives discussing points of language discussing pupils work teaching techniques for more independent learning Classroom talk

5 Discuss In a typical lesson, how much speaking (in English/TL) is classroom talk and how much is talk about the theme of the lesson? How much of your talk is TL? How much of students talk is in TL? How much TL speaking does each student get to do?

6 Target Language Too often, students were not taught how to respond to everyday requests and thus routine work in the target language and opportunities to use it spontaneously were too few The Ofsted report Modern Languages: Achievement and Challenge 2007-10 The judicious use of English is sometimes appropriate for checking conceptual understanding or developing analytical skills KS3 Framework Certain aspects of the current teaching and learning agenda (e.g. AFL, PLTS, ICU) can lead to reduced TL use. If pupils are to master and use a language for effective communication, the target language needs to be used extensively by teachers and pupils KS3 Framework

7 Handout 1 describes four activity styles aimed at building learner expertise in understanding teacher instructions:Handout 1 –Suggest an additional activity with the same aim as the handout activities in mind. Preaching by example: teacher instructions

8 Ouvrez votre livre à la page 23! … Oui, parce quon a fini la page 21 lundi, et la page 22 nest pas très utile. Allez, cest bon? La page 23? Vous avez trouvé la page 23? Preaching by example: teacher instructions

9 Fermez la porte, sil vous plait!.. Preaching by example: teacher instructions

10 The KS3 Framework for languages 1.4 – Talking together (1 st set of objectives) Year 7 – Construct and generate language, using a stock of words, phrases and sentences for social communication and to talk about their work Year 8 – Initiate and participate in unrehearsed pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil exchanges Year 9 – Make extended and/or frequent contributions to classroom talk

11 Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise Building blocks

12 en Italie aux Étas-unis en Espagne Lannée dernière, je suis allé(e) Jai visité la plage les musées les magasins Je suis resté(e) et dans une tente dans une famille dans une gîte et cétait Jaimais bien mais pas la chaleur. La nouriture les embouteillages. Lannée prochaine, jirai en France Espagne Swede confortable. bien equipé(e). très moderne. jai fait du velo jai joué au foot jai fait des excursions les restaurants les marches les jeunes faire de lalpinisme. faire du canoë-kayac. visiter les attractions. pour

13 Building blocks Can I work with Tom today? I cant do the test next Tuesday because I must go to the dentists at 10.00. Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise

14 Building blocks – Modelling –The teacher models how familiar language can be recycled in order to create new messages for day-to-day communication. For example, the class originally met the phrase Can I? in Can I take my jacket off? and the teacher now models how it can help create new messages such as Can I open the window? or Can I work with Paul? (from KS3 Framework Exemplification - Substrand 1.4) Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise

15 Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise Handout 2

16 A few other relevant KS3 Framework objectives (year 7) –(4.2) Build and use in new contexts a stock of high- frequency words and words relating to everyday settings –(4.4) Use knowledge of word order, high-frequency words and punctuation to understand and build simple and compound sentences –(4.5) Understand and use some high-frequency modal verb forms in simple statements and questions –(4.6) Understand and use confidently some common question types in different contexts) Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise

17 Speaking National curriculum level 4 –Pupils (…) begin to use their knowledge of grammar to adapt and substitute single words and phrases. (…) National curriculum level 5 –Pupils (…) vary their language and sometimes produce more extended responses. (…) Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise

18 Permanent wall displays of key language & organic word walls which are added to as language is discovered Dedicated section in vocabulary books / dedicated computer file or page in School/dept home planners Placemats/menu Hot words Classroom talk: how to develop learner expertise

19 Classroom talk: how to increase participation Pupils know that their willingness to play an active part in day-to-day classroom communication (…) is evaluated as part of their overall progress in the subject. (from KS3 Framework Exemplification - Substrand 1.4) Accuracy / communication Prompts and challenges

20 E.g. –Use of the alphabet –masculine / plural / preterite / … –noun / verb / adjective / … –letter / accent / vowel / prefix / word / phrase / sentence / … –agrees with / add / remove / before / after / … in target language. TL about language

21 Mateo Falcone (Prosper Mérimée) Autrefois, en Corse, les criminels se cachaient dans les montagnes pour échapper à la police. Ils y restaient parfois pendant des années et mangeaient grâce à la nature et à des amis qui les protégeaient. Mateo était un fermier respecté mais dangereux: avant son mariage, il avait tué un rival. Un matin, il est parti travailler avec sa femme Giuseppa. Leur fils, Fortunato, est resté seul à la maison. Après quelques heures, un homme est arrivé et lui a dit: Petit, la police me cherche! Je connais bien ton père. Aide-moi! TL about language

22 TL about language Modelling using TL E.g. modelling how to turn two short sentences into one longer sentence.

23 TL about language (see previous slides) High-frequency TL phrases TL about students work In my opinion / I think that… You/he/she/they need(s) (to)… You/he/she/they should… You/he/she/they could… Why have you used…? Have you checked…? I found…...

24 TL about language The teacher displays a piece of writing and makes fair/unfair comments on it in TL – e.g.: All the sentences are very short. –Students respond through gesture (e.g. thumbs up/down). –If they have sufficient expertise they also respond in TL.

25 TL about language More advanced version of the above - The teacher displays a piece of writing and invites students to evaluate it using TL. During this process the teacher: –encourages peer responses; –gives personal reactions; –asks questions if appropriate, e.g.: How varied are the structures? Can you quote some interesting structures used here?

26 Next steps In the light of this session: What changes do you feel able to make immediately to your day-to-day practice? What steps might your department take to develop classroom talk at KS3-4?

27 QTS Standards Q14 & 15 – Subjects & Curriculum Q25(c) – Adapting Language to suit learners Q26(a) – AFL techniques

28 Further CPD Languages South East offers a wide range of continuing professional development courses Courses developed for Links into Languages - Crown Copyright

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