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An Introduction to Multicultural Education

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1 An Introduction to Multicultural Education
James Banks 2002

2 Dimensions and School Characteristics
Five Dimensions: Content integration The knowledge construction process Prejudice reduction An equity pedagogy An empowering school culture and social structure

3 Dimensions and School Characteristics
Content Integration The extent to which teachers use examples and content from a variety of cultures and groups to illustrate key concepts, principles, generalizations, and theories in their subject area or discipline.

4 Dimensions and School Characteristics
The Knowledge Construction Process The extent to which teachers help students to understand, investigate, and determine how the implicit cultural perspectives, and biases within a discipline influence the ways in which knowledge is constructed within it.

5 Dimensions and School Characteristics
Prejudice Reduction The characteristics of students’ racial attitudes and how they can be modified by teaching methods and materials.

6 Dimensions and School Characteristics
An Equity Pedagogy Teachers modify their teaching in ways that will facilitate the academic achievement of students from diverse racial, cultural, and social-class groups.

7 Dimensions and School Characteristics
An Empowering School Culture and Social Structure A school culture that empowers students from diverse racial, ethnic, and cultural groups.

8 Eight Characteristics of a the Multicultural School
Attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs, and actions of the school staff Formalized curriculum and course of study Learning, teaching, and cultural styles favored by the school Languages and dialects of the school

9 Eight Characteristics of a the Multicultural School
5. Instructional materials 6. Assessment and testing procedures 7. The school culture and the hidden curriculum 8. The counseling program

10 Curriculum Transformation
Students and teachers make paradigm shifts and view the American and world experience from the perspectives of different racial, ethnic, cultural, and gender groups.

11 Curriculum Transformation
Goal of multicultural education: 1. To increase educational equality for both gender groups, for students from diverse ethnic and cultural groups, and for exceptional students and 2. To develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to survive and function effectively in a diverse global world 3. To develop cross-cultural competencies

12 Curriculum Transformation
Transformation of assumptions, beliefs, and structures, within schools regarding How students learn Human abilities The nature of knowledge

13 Curriculum Transformation
Four levels of a transformed curriculum; The contributions approach The additive approach The transformation approach The social action approach

14 Curriculum Transformation
The contributions approach Focuses on holidays, heroes, and discrete cultural elements

15 Curriculum Transformation
The additive approach Content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing its structure

16 Curriculum Transformation
The transformation approach The structure of the curriculum is changed to enable students to view concepts, issues, events, and themes from the perspective of diverse ethnic and cultural groups.

17 Curriculum Transformation
The social action approach Students make decisions on important social issues and take actions to help solve them.

18 Curriculum Transformation
teaches students to know, to care, and to act!

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