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50 years of Pharmaceutical Technology and Its Impact On The Beef We Provide To Consumers.

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Presentation on theme: "50 years of Pharmaceutical Technology and Its Impact On The Beef We Provide To Consumers."— Presentation transcript:

1 50 years of Pharmaceutical Technology and Its Impact On The Beef We Provide To Consumers


3 Thomas E. Elam, Ph.D. Rodney L. Preston, Ph.D. AUTHORS

4 Technology Is a Key Factor in Keeping Beef Competitive in the Consumers Food Basket THEME

5 PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Applied to the beef industry over the past 55 years is one of the major contributors to providing the consumer with affordable and wholesome beef


7 None of these technologies alone is solely responsible But, together, they have revolutionized the U.S. beef production system

8 DOMESTIC BEEF PRODUCTION/HEAD, TOTAL JAN. 1 CATTLE HERD 1955-2003 Actual, 2004-2005 Forecast +119% improvement! 2011 Actual = 289 Lbs. 2011 Trend = 262 Lbs.

9 CARCASS BEEF POUNDS/HEAD AND HARVEST/HEAD OF JAN. 1 TOTAL INVENTORY +36% increase in head harvested per head inventory +50% increase in carcass weight 2011

10 WHICH HAS ALLOWED US TO… More than double total beef production From about the same herd size as in 1955 Reduce real consumer beef prices Reduce our impact on the environment And increase the quality of beef by grain feeding a higher proportion of cattle


12 WHAT IF TECHNOLOGY WERE FROZEN IN 1955? Lower beef production/consumption Higher cost/pound of beef produced Higher cattle/beef prices Larger cattle herd, but lower beef production Greater environmental impact More waste produced More land needed for pasture and feed Higher retail price/pound of beef Greater market share for alternative meats


14 200 183 million cattle would need About 500 million additional acres (at current stocking rates) That is more than the combined area of: Texas Arizona NM Kansas Colorado Clearly, this amount of additional land would be expensive, and entail environmental consequences Unrealistic? Brazil is the same size as the U.S., produces beef at about our 1955 level, uses 190 million head, and has cleared rain forest for pasture

15 % Change in Feedlot Performance and Feed Use, 1955-2005

16 SOURCES OF TECHNOLOGY CHANGE Animal Health; Pharmaceuticals Genetics Nutrition & management Grain yields & feed costs

17 PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY Antibiotics Implants Ionophores Repartitioning agents Parasiticides Vaccines Estrus regulation

18 ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE GAINS FROM KEY PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGIES Beta agonists yield ~15-25 pounds of added carcass weight on same days and feed.

19 GENETICS Beef cattle genetics is a mixed bag Small frame (1950) vs. large frame English vs. exotic breeds Dairy genetics has greatly increased milk production/cow; fewer dairy cows Quantitative genetic measures (EPD) and gene marker technology will identify gene combinations for improved growth, efficiency & eating qualities of beef

20 NUTRITION Research has defined the nutrient requirements of cattle (NRC) Feeding for optimum breeding performance in large frame cattle Pasture & stocker cattle supplemented to maximize roughage utilization Predicted gains, efficiency and final weight of feedlot cattle facilitate break- evens & hedging to lock in profit

21 GRAIN (CORN) YIELDS While not exactly beef technology, corn yields and relative price have had a major influence on the U.S. beef production system, beef technology application, and the cost of beef to the consumer


23 Beef from Grain-Fed & Non-Fed Cattle

24 BEEF QUALITY USDA grades are the industrys standard of quality measurement For several reasons, their relation to the eating quality of beef is marginal Little change in grain-fed beef quality over last 50 years No strong relation between use of pharmaceutical technologies and fed beef quality Overall beef quality has increased due to higher proportion of grain-fed beef

25 CONCLUSIONS Over the past 55 years, efficiency of U.S. beef production has improved over 100% Several technologies have played important roles in efficiency gains Without these improvements, environmental impact would be greater Pharmaceutical technologies are an integral part of the efficiency improvement Technology has kept beef competitive in the consumers food basket By helping to increase cattle feeding, technology has improved beef quality

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