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Customs Partnerships – A Focus On Container Security

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1 Customs Partnerships – A Focus On Container Security
Christine Bradley Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) Canadian High Commission

2 Risk Management & Enforcement Marine Security
Program Overview Overview: CBSA Risk Management & Enforcement Marine Security Container Security Initiative (CSI) Best Practices: Customs Cooperation & Partnerships Discussion & Questions Over the next thirty minutes or so I hope to not bore you too completely! I will cover a range of issues relevant to discussions held already during the conference. To being I will give you a brief overview of my Agency – the Canada Border Services Agency, including our organization, our mandate, our activities. This may be useful in comparing the organization and operations of the bodies responsible for managing border control and security here in South Africa Given my role here in Africa, I will discuss marine security and its importance in the current security and economic environment. I will give you a comprehensive briefing on our Container Security Initiative and its role in marine security. Many of you may be familiar with the US Program, however I will explain how Canada’s Program is different. And finally, I will discuss some Best Practices relating to border control & security. In discussing the practices that I have chosen, I have not meant them to be a definitive listing – but rather a bridge towards a group discussion.

3 Border Security: Canada
Public Safety Canada Public Safety Canada Public Safety Canada Providing an Integrated Response Minister For Public Safety Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) Correction al Service of Canada (CSC) Parole Board of Canada Immigration Intelligence, Enforcement and Ports of Entry Customs Program Food & Agriculture Inspection at Ports of Entry (CFIA) INTEGRATES Within Canada the Ministry of Public Safety is the lead department for public safety & security. Under this main portfolio are five Agencies dealing with national security, border security, emergency management, law enforcement and crime prevention, and corrections. Together, these agencies have more than 52,000 employees Within this context, The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) manages the nation's borders by enforcing Canadian laws governing trade and travel, as well as international agreements and conventions. CBSA facilitates legitimate cross-border traffic and supports economic development while preventing people and goods that pose a potential threat from entering Canada. The CBSA has a workforce of approximately 13,000 employees, which includes over 7,200 uniformed CBSA officers at approximately 1,200 points across Canada and at 39 international locations Some additional statistics of our Agency: - CBSA manages 119 land-border crossings and operates at 13 international airports. - Of these land-border crossings, 61 operate on a 24/7 basis, as well as 10 of the international airports. - Marine operations at major ports of Halifax, Montréal and Vancouver, and at numerous smaller marinas and reporting stations. - Officers also perform operations at 27 rail sites. - We also process and examine international mail at three mail processing centres.

4 Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)
The Canada Border Services Agency: Established December 2003 – part of the Public Safety Canada portfolio bringing together security, law enforcement, corrections and border agencies Provides integrated border management, bringing together functions previously spread among 3 organizations (Canada Customs, Citizenship and Immigration Canada, and Canadian Food Inspection Agency) Administers about 90 Acts & Regulations Approximately 12,400 employees serving 200,000 commercial importers and exporters and approximately 95 million travellers each year Operates at over 1,200 points of service across Canada and 39 locations abroad I will just give you more of an overview on my Agency: The CBSA was created in December 2003 in an effort to integrate Agencies responsible for maintaining safety and security at our borders. The Agency was created by integrating Canada Customs with border and enforcement portions of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The corresponding mandate: the Agency is responsible for providing integrated border services that support national security and public safety priorities and facilitate the free flow of persons and goods, including animals and plants, that meet all requirements under the program legislation. This new Agency administers and enforces about 90 pieces of legislation, ranging from laws that govern the import/export of goods and people to the Criminal Code to Proceeds of Crime, Money Laundering, & Terrorist Financing. The new Agency operates at approximately 1,200 service locations across Canada, and 39 in other countries and employs over 12,400 public servants Since the creation of the Agency in 2003, the CBSA has undergone significant changes to its overall structure as services previously offered by different agencies are now housed under a single banner. Not only has the structure of the organization changed, but the range of duties and the institutional priorities have changed. September 11/2001 spurred much of the changes. For example previously within Canada Customs the focus was on revenue and tax collection, however the new Agency was created to address heightened security concerns post-9/11 Some other significant changes with my Agency include: May the Government of Canada passed a bill which changed agency policy to allow the officers to arrest and detain individuals at the border for non-customs related violations of Canadian law. These new responsibilities led to the implementation of use of force policies. Border Services Officers across Canada started to carry collapsible batons, OC spray and handcuffs. 2006 – Federal government implemented initiatives to equip CBSA officers with side arms and to eliminate single- person border crossings to help officers perform their duties. The decision to arm BSOs has been a subject of some controversy in Canada for several years, but the idea has had the support of other law enforcement agencies as well as the union that represents the affected officers.

5 CBSA: Enforcement Mandate
Mandate: the Agency is responsible for providing integrated border services that support national security and public safety priorities and facilitate the free flow of persons and goods, including animals and plants, that meet all of the requirements under the program legislation. The CBSA is also mandated to prevent the admission into Canada of persons involved in war crimes or crimes against humanity, to assist in combating money laundering, and to conduct the detention and removal from Canada of inadmissible persons To fulfill its mandate, the CBSA works in partnership with business, with other Government of Canada departments and agencies, and with the governments of other countries Enforcement priorities: Counter-terrorism Illegal migration/human trafficking/human smuggling Illegal trade of weapons, illicit narcotics, contraband tobacco, proceeds of crime/money laundering Precursor chemicals Strategic Export Control Child pornography/Obscenity/ Hate Propaganda As noted, the CBSA includes immigration enforcement and intelligence functions. We have several dedicated Intelligence Programs which aim to prevent certain classes of people from gaining access to Canada, such as Persons involved in war crimes, genocide or crimes against humanity regardless of when or where they occurred Other criminals, persons involved / linked to organized crime Terrorists / those linked to terrorism On the both ‘goods and people side’ our enforcement priorities are determined based on a risk assessment approach and ongoing review and evaluation of enforcement actions, threat assessments, strategic intelligence, and larger governmental priorities. Our current enforcement priorities includes: Counter-terrorism Illegal migration/human trafficking/human smuggling Illegal trade of weapons, illicit narcotics, contraband tobacco, proceeds of crime/money laundering Precursor chemicals Strategic Export Control Child pornography/Obscenity/ Hate Propaganda

6 CBSA: Enforcement & Risk Management at the Border
BORDER MANAGEMENT Pre-approval to facilitate low risk Advance information – people & goods Turning information into intelligence No nation, including Canada, can guarantee absolute safety against threats at the border. The CBSA processes an average of 95 million travellers every year and approves the entry of over $400 billion in imported goods annually. It is impossible to stop and check every individual and every piece of merchandise. Therefore, the Agency’s focus must be on risk management In the past, the CBSA viewed risk simply as the potential existence of non-compliance. Risk was not measured or categorized. The CBSA depended primarily on intelligence and officers’ abilities to detect documentary, visual, verbal and behavioural indicators to identify high-risk persons, conveyances and goods. By analyzing business practices, the CBSA came to the conclusion that it was no longer realistic to rely primarily on intelligence, observation, indicators and/or instinct to initially identify high-risk persons, conveyances and goods. Providing protection for Canadian society with minimal impact on the legitimate flow of goods and persons was a challenge. This could only be achieved by separating those who comply with legislative requirements from non- compliant clients. The solution: risk management And over the past four years, the CBSA has developed a robust and sophisticated border management regime with a scientific approach to risk assessment and detection. In this regard, the CBSA’s risk-management approach is multi- layered. The Agency’s operations are based on three fundamental strategies: 1. Implementing pre-approval programs (e.g. the NEXUS and Free and Secure Trade [FAST] programs) to facilitate the movement of low-risk people and goods; 2. using advance information (by means of such programs as the Advance Commercial Information [ACI] program and the Advance Passenger Information/Passenger Name Record [API/PNR] program) on what and who is coming to the border; and 3. turning this information into intelligence using sophisticated science- and technology Under the CBSA’s risk management framework, security and contraband targeting are fundamental components of compliance and enforcement efforts. Effective targeting means to identify and focus on high-risk persons, importers, exporters, carriers and conveyances while facilitating low-risk. This is accomplished by requiring key data elements on persons, conveyances, carriers and goods prior to their arrival in Canada. The advance information is correlated, evaluated and the level of risk is assessed. This results in facilitation of the low-risk persons, goods or conveyance while concentrating on targeting the high-risk for examination upon arrival RISK ASSESSMENT & DETECTION

7 CBSA’s Marine Security Regime
The CBSA has developed an integrated marine supply chain security regime consistent with the World Customs Organisation (WCO) standards. Advance Commercial Information (ACI) Program – marine cargo and conveyance data transmitted electronically to the CBSA 24 hours prior to loading at the foreign port. TITAN – Automated risk assessment system. National Risk Assessment Centre – 7/24 targeting centre for the identification of high- risk shipments. Container Security Initiative - Cooperative arrangements with international partners for marine security including the identification of high-risk shipments for outbound inspections. The safety and security of citizens is a top priority of any government. With over 200 million marine container shipments taking place every year at major seaports worldwide, enhancing the security of the border, while facilitating the legitimate flow of goods, are important objectives In Canada we work closely with our American counterpart, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), to achieve greater synergy and a coordinated approach to border security. Along these lines, the CBSA strives to develop programs and initiatives and create and foster partnerships to keep Canada safe. The following measures specifically address marine trade security: Advance Commercial Information ACI (This is also known as the 24-hour rule) To specifically address container security, the CBSA launched the Advance Commercial Information (ACI) marine program in April The program provides us with advance cargo reporting to assist in making decisions about whether to inspect a container before it arrives in Canada. The ACI Program requires marine carriers to electronically transmit marine cargo data to the CBSA 24 hours prior to loading cargo at a foreign port (including the U.S.). If the voyage is less than 24 hours in duration, the cargo and conveyance data must be reported at the time of departure from the foreign port. This requirement allows the CBSA to effectively identify threats to Canada's health, safety, and security prior to the arrival of cargo and conveyances Through the National Risk Assessment Centre, the CBSA performs risk assessments and determines whether examinations are required in foreign ports to address any potential security threats. 2. Automated Risk Assessment ACI is key to automated risk assessment. TITAN is a commercial risk assessment system that automates many of the manual paper based targeting processes performed by CBSA. The system provides automated risk assessment of all incoming cargo shipments prior to their arrival in Canada. This is achieved through automated case management and through display of critical pieces of pre-arrival information in a manner that facilitates manifest review. STAT: on average, per month 162,000 containers are reviewed through TITAN 3. National Risk Assessment Center (NRAC) We operate a National Risk Assessment Centre (NRAC) to increase our ability to detect and interdict the movement of high-risk people and goods. The NRAC operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and acts as a focal point and interface between international, national, and local law enforcement agencies to protect Canadians against current and emerging threats. Some Programs that NRAC is responsible for: Traveller Pre-arrival Risk Assessment - NRAC exchanges information with U.S.Customs and Border Protection (CBP), in the form of lookouts and risk assessments using Advance Passenger Information/Passenger Name Record data on travellers arriving by commercial air carriers to Canada and theUnited States. This pre-arrival information allows CBSA officers at NRAC to intercept contraband and illegal migrants before they reach Canadian airports. Air and Marine Cargo Targeting - NRAC performs both marine and air cargo targeting. NRAC targeters ensure cargo information is transmitted in a timely manner, allowing them to thoroughly perform risk assessments and to dispatch CBSA officers to conduct examinations of high-risk shipments or cargo that may pose a threat to Canada Warrant Response Centre - The Warrant Response Centre (WRC), is the CBSA’s national repository for all active immigration warrants and information on previously deported persons. Established in 1995, the WRC provides information and direction to local, national and international law-enforcement agencies that call to confirm identity and immigration status in suspect cases. 24/7 Call Centre and Border Watch - NRAC also manage calls to Border Watch, a toll-free tip line that allows the public to confidentially report possible illegal border activity. Container Security Initiative The Container Security Initiative (CSI), is a multinational program that protects the primary system of global trade — containerized shipping — from being exploited or disrupted by terrorists. This initiative allows NRAC to target and interdict potential terrorism threats before they reach Canadian shores and overseas officers to work cooperatively with foreign Customs partners to examine high risk cargo.

8 CBSA’s Container Security Initiative
Increasing marine security and facilitating trade through cooperation with foreign partners The Container Security Initiative (CSI) is a multinational initiative that protects the main method of global trade — containerized shipping — from being exploited or disrupted by terrorists. It is designed to safeguard global marine trade while enabling legitimate cargo containers to move faster and more efficiently through the supply chain to seaports worldwide At least 80% of world trade is transported by ocean transportation and 65% of global oil transfers. The massive flow of containers around the world makes maritime transport – specifically containerized transport an essential part of the world economy. Therefore it is quite frightening to conceptualize how disastrous the consequences of a terrorist attack on the marine supply chain would be, say by using a marine container as a bomb and detonating it within a port or even on the open seas. Potential consequence could include: - Ports and border would immediately constrict or even close down - Trade would be completely disrupted - Depending on where / when a bomb was detonated: there could be mass casualties / loss of life, and there could be mass damage to ports, shipping lanes, property, etc. It is evident that there would be enormous consequences for the global economy The Container Security Initiative (CSI) is one initiative that counters threats to the commercial marine supply chain. CSI is a multinational initiative that protects the main method of global trade — containerized shipping — from being exploited or disrupted by terrorists. It is designed to safeguard global marine trade while enabling legitimate cargo containers to move faster and more efficiently through the supply chain to seaports worldwide Under the CBSA’s CSI Program – Border Integrity Officers are deployed to foreign countries to liaise and collaborate with foreign Customs partners. The deployed officers liaise with their foreign partners to assess and exam cargo prior to loading in the foreign port.

9 CSI : Timeline 2005 US CBP & CBSA sign CSI Partnership Arrangement
Nov 2007 CBSA CSI Agreement with Panama US CBP: CSI Operations in 58 ports 9 / 11 This will give you a bit of a history of why and how the Initiative developed: In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, U.S. Customs Service began developing antiterrorism programs to help secure the United States. Within months of these attacks, U.S. Customs Service had created the Container Security Initiative (CSI). CSI addressed the threat to border security and global trade posed by the potential for terrorist use of a maritime container to deliver a weapon. 2002 – Canada – US Joint targeting initiative: CBSA Officers deployed to: Newark New Jersey and Seattle, WA; US CBP Targeters deployed to: Montreal, Halifax, and Vancouver October 20, 2005, in Washington, D.C. United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Commissioner Robert C. Bonner and Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) President Alain Jolicoeur signed a Container Security Initiative (CSI) partnership arrangement to move forward on the commitment of both countries to securing North American trade. The flags represent the points along the continuum where Canadian CSI Ports were established: JUNE 2006 – CBSA and SARS sign a CSI partnership agreement NOV 2007 – CBSA and Panama Customs sign a partnership arrangement And in JUNE 2008 CBSA and Japan Customs sign a reciprocal agreement. Later, Japan would deploy one Intel officer to work in Vancouver, while the CBSA would deploy one CSI resource. 2002 Joint Targeting Initiative June 2008 CBSA Reciprocal Agreement with Japan June 2006 CBSA CSI Agreement with South Africa

10 How CSI Works The CBSA and partner Customs organizations work closely together to achieve the following: Ensuring compliance and an understanding of customs programs; Harmonizing customs requirements and processes; Detecting, identifying and intercepting high-risk containers through the sharing of information and knowledge; and Ensuring the security of the global supply chain and the smooth, expedited flow of legitimate trade. A bit of an explanation as to how CSI works: It incorporates: Compliance – with regards to Customs and Trade regulations, for example from shipping lines, agents, freight forwarders Harmonization – of Customs requirements and processes And Cooperation – among Customs partners, between Customs & Trade via developing agreements, information sharing, sharing knowledge and best practices With the objective of detecting, identifying , and intercepting high risk cargo (at the early point in time as possible) while ensuring the free flow of legitimate trade As mentioned, the Canadian CSI Program was modeled after the US Program, but with some key differences. Most of these differences sought to maximize the benefits of having attaches / officers posted abroad. This table explains key differences between the Canadian and US CSI Models: Currently there are 58 foreign ports participating in the US CSI Program, accounting for 85 percent of container traffic bound for the United States. To date there are just 3 sites for Canada, covering 11 ports. The targeting of marine containers destined to North America is key to both, however in the Canadian model this targeting is done at a central location by specialized targeters back in Canada. In the US model, targeters are deployed who do the targeting from their location of deployment. In terms of identifying high risk containers and making a decision towards doing an examination, the difference here is that for Canada the decision is made jointly with the foreign Customs partner. So for example in South Africa, if a targeter in my Agency identifies a container of risk, we would work jointly with SARS to determine whether this risk could be negated, and if not, whether an examination should be conducted and at what level. On the US side, they use a thresh hold in terms of a score within their automated targeting system. Any container that scores above a certain level is automatically referred for an examination. In terms of examinations done, under both Programs the goal is the least intrusive as possible. The level of exam will ultimately depend on a number of factors, chiefly the quantity and quality of the indicators present. Most exams are non-intrusive: X-ray scans Both countries have CSI Programs in South Africa, with both having officers located in Durban. However, the scope of the Canadian Program is far wider, extending to cover all ports in South Africa. For the American Program, they focus only on shipments exported via the port of Durban. Beyond targeting and examination coordination, the Canadian CSI Program includes the expanded activities of: Capacity Building (with our host Customs partners, local law enforcement), Industry Outreach, and perhaps most importantly, Intelligence Gathering and Development.

11 CSI : Key Principles Cooperation Security Expedited flow
Risk assessment done in cooperation (Canada & CSI partners) Share information / knowledge on: cargo, trade community, general security, Customs Best Practices Joint enforcement operations / training initiatives Security Partnership enhances security through a multi-layered approach — compliance, harmonization and cooperation — improving the effectiveness of each partner’s customs processes and relationship with trade chain partners Expedited flow Benefits: the streamlined flow of legitimate container traffic and enhanced efficiency Cooperative security efforts increase efficiency in the identification of high-risk shipments at points of loading and ensure the container’s unimpeded intermodal movement

12 Best Practices: Integration
“Integrated Border Management” coordination and cooperation among all the relevant authorities and agencies involved in border security and trade facilitation to establish effective, efficient and integrated border management systems, in order to reach the common goal of open, but controlled and secure borders Based on the overview I have provided on structure and strategic priorities of my Agency, as well as the CSI Programme, the first ‘best practice’ that I will note represents what has been a trend in border management strategy: integration. This concept recognizes that threats and opportunities arising from international trade and global migration – from drug and human trafficking to organised crime, migration crime, smuggling, terrorism and fraud – can be dealt with most effectively through the coordination and cooperation of all authorities involved in border security and trade facilitation. Since 9/11 governments around the world have moved towards integrating Some examples of integration: Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) – as noted at the beginning, in December 2003 Customs, Immigration Enforcement & Intelligence, and Food & Plant Inspection Enforcement were integrated to form the CBSA. UK Border Agency - The UK Border Agency is responsible for securing the UK borders and controlling migration in the UK. In this regard they have integrated the management of border control for the UK, enforcing both immigration and customs regulations. It was formed on 1 April 2008 by a merger of the Border and Immigration Agency (BIA), UK visas and the port of entry functions of HM Revenue and Customs. US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) - In response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) to coordinate "homeland security" efforts. Following this 22 Agencies were integrated into the new department, including: Coast Guard, US ICE, Border patrol, INS, etc. Some examples of integrated Public Safety Canada initiatives: IBET – Integrated Border Enforcement Teams IPOC – Integrated Proceeds Of Crime Initiative ITAC – Integrated Threat Assessment Center MSOC – Marine Security Operation Center(s) Shiprider

13 Best Practices: Multiple Borders
Multiple Borders Approach: screen & target at multiple points along way 3 2 1 A second best practice, which also corresponds with the CSI Program: Multiple Borders Approach The CBSA relies on intelligence-led decision making and advance information to identify high-risk travellers and contraband goods bound for Canada. In accordance with its multiple borders approach, the CBSA screens people and goods at several points along the travel continuum: at the earliest opportunity overseas, in transit, and on arrival at the Canadian border. Receiving and reviewing documentation in advance improves the CBSA’s ability to target and interdict inadmissible people and goods, and acts as a deterrent to those contemplating illegal immigration activities or the importation of goods that pose a threat to public health and safety. NRAC and MCTUs (located in Halifax, Montréal and Vancouver) share the targeting of commercial goods arriving by marine vessel. NRAC targeters review the risk scores and ACI of each shipment, and conduct an in-depth assessment of the shipments identified by TITAN as posing a potential national security threat. If they identify a suspicious shipment, they may issue a "do not load" or "do not unload" order and the cargo is examined (either in a foreign port or upon arrival depending on the nature of the threat). MCTUs review cargo manifests against law enforcement, customs and other databases, local trade chain traffic patterns and other sources, looking for potential Tier II threats, such as contraband smuggling, forged goods and weapons. If they identify a potential threat, they refer the shipment for examination by BSOs upon arrival. As part of the Canada/U.S. Smart Border Declaration, Joint in Transit (JTI) targeters located in the ports of Newark, NJ, and Seattle, WA, review marine containers arriving at U.S. ports destined for Canada (by rail or truck). U.S. CBP assesses all shipments for national security threats, while JTI targeters concentrate on identifying contraband smuggling. If JTI targeters wish to refer a container for examination, they submit a formal request to U.S. authorities to conduct the examination at the port of entry. Intelligence-led decision making Advance information High risk: travellers & contraband FOCUS

14 Best Practices: Cooperation
Enhanced cooperation leads to greater knowledge and awareness of legitimate trade, enabling partners to focus on identifying high-risk shipments and/or people. Security and enforcement in the border environment often encompasses the responsibilities of many Agencies (for example: here in South Africa the following bodies are involved in border security: SARS-Customs, SAPS, Dept. of Home Affairs, Dept. of Health, Dept. of Agriculture, National Intelligence Agency, etc.) Therefore, a country’s economic, social, and security well-being depends on the cooperation and coordination of the various agencies involved In border management Internal cooperation will lead to greater situational knowledge and awareness, for example of legitimate trade, thus cutting down on what may be ‘unknown risk’ and enabling partners to focus on what is high-risk (as opposed to what is unknown)

15 Best Practices: Coordination
Globalization: Border management increasingly complex Customs Administrations must adapt to international trends: International trade Security & Safety Emergence of transnational crime networks Growing concerns regarding public health and the environment Illegal migration Crime is trans-national therefore Customs / LEAs also have to coordinate trans-nationally Key principles: COOPERATION, COORDINATION, EFFICIENCY, FLEXIBILTY RESPONSIVENESS Globalization has created a complex and interconnected world. The international mobility of goods, people, capital, information and technology is steadily increasing. The trend benefits both legal and illicit trade as criminals exploit more integrated markets and the freer movement of people to move goods, persons and money across borders. As a result, the range and complexity of risks that have to be managed at the border have increased. By improving our understanding of international trends and their effect on the Customs’/law enforcement interests, and developing cooperative partnerships we can develop effective responses and enhance security: 1. International Trade – international trade volumes are growing. The challenges and complexity facing Customs will continue to increase as this trend continues. Other trends in international trade which impact on the work of Customs includes: Trade patterns are changing and participants are increasing, new trade agreements and rules are emerging, and new logistics and supply chain models. Border strategies have to be cognizant of the Customs’ administrations mandate to control the movement of goods out of, as well as into, their countries. 2. Security & Safety - Security threats recognize no boundaries -- recent terrorist events have altered the way countries evaluate security threats. The line between national and international security is increasingly indistinguishable and therefore border security emerges as a priority as international terrorism concerns heighten. Global economic integration means that a major terrorist attack in the anywhere would have devastating effects throughout the world. 3. Trans-national crime networks - Transnational organized crime causes serious threats to international peace and security. Corruption, illicit trade, money laundering, human trafficking and the violation of intellectual property rights weaken a state's effectiveness, impede economic growth and may undermine democracy. Organized crime and terrorist groups are increasingly operating through fluid networks rather than more formal hierarchies, which provides criminals with flexibility, low visibility and longevity. The nimbleness of such criminal networks makes the task of security bureaucracies more difficult and demands enhanced cooperation and information sharing between border management and law-enforcement agencies to detect and prevent crime. 4. Public health and environmental concerns - The international community has adopted a number of international instruments aimed at controlling the international movement of harmful and dangerous goods, including the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITIES) and the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. Growing concerns regarding the environment are likely to result in new environmental treaties with an impact on the controls applied at borders. 5. Irregular Migration - Migration is a global phenomenon. The flow of irregular migrants has not diminished over the years, and continues to be influenced by push factors in countries of origin (poverty, disaster, conflict, crisis) and pull factors in destination countries (employment opportunities and safety). The effort to curtail illegal migration is complicated by the existence and expansion of two emerging trends: fraudulent documents/abuse of legitimate documents and human smuggling/trafficking -- both of which are increasingly facilitated by organized criminal groups. In our globalized and interdependent world, many of the challenges facing Customs administrations can be dealt with most effectively through cooperation internally and internationally with a concerted effort to collaborate with the greater border management community through key multilateral and regional forums. Coordination ensures a wider and more effective impact of our individual enforcement and intelligence efforts. We must direct our enforcement and intelligence efforts towards activities that generate the highest return on investment and sustainability – this goes back to the concept of risk management Customs Intelligence must also be flexible to enable to respond quickly, effectively and assertively to changing demand, emerging issues, opportunities and threats that require an immediate response.

16 Questions? Thank You Christine Bradley
Container Security Initiative – South Africa Canada Border Services Agency Tel Questions? Thank You Thank you

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