Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ethanol & Petroleum: Substitute Goods or Complementary Goods

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ethanol & Petroleum: Substitute Goods or Complementary Goods"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethanol & Petroleum: Substitute Goods or Complementary Goods
Joel Schumacher Associate Specialist Dept. of Ag. Economics & Economics

2 What is a substitute product?

3 What makes a good substitute?

4 Economic Principle: Substitution
Consumers substitute one product for another based on product attributes. Price Quality Availability

5 What is a complementary product?

6 Definition of complement
A good or service the is used in conjunction with another good or service. Examples: Trucks and Truck Tires Automobile and Automobile Insurance

7 Which best describes the relationship between Ethanol & Gasoline?
They are substitute goods They are complementary goods

8 What is gasoline used for?
Transportation Cars, Pickups, Vans, Motorcycles Recreational Equipment Small Boat Engines, Four-Wheelers, Snowmobiles Other Stuff Small Engines (lawnmowers, snow blowers, etc.) Generators Older Farm Equipment

9 2011 US Energy Supply & Demand
EIA Data

10 How is Gasoline Manufactured?

11 Gasoline Additives: Oxygenates
1970s & 1980s: Two Types of Gasoline Leaded & Unleaded 1990s: One Type of Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline (Modified Unleaded) MTBE was the primary additive 2000s: Two Types of Gasoline MTBE & Ethanol About 25 States have banned MTBE

12 How do we use ethanol? Ethanol is blended with Gasoline:
1% to 10% Ethanol & Gasoline Blend (E10) 15% Ethanol & Gasoline Blend (E15) 85% Ethanol & Gasoline Blend (E85)

13 Ethanol Markets 10% or less ethanol blends 15% Blend (E15)
Responsible for 98%-99% of all ethanol sales 15% Blend (E15) New to the market 85% Blend (E85) Requires flex fuel vehicle Few retail locations 1.6% of stations offer E85 Consumer Choice

14 What is ethanol? A Substitute Product A Complement Product
Ethanol is a substitute at blends of over 5-7% Ethanol is a substitute for MTBE and Lead A Complement Product Ethanol is complement at blends over 5-7%


16 Substitutes for Gasoline

17 Substitutes for Gasoline
Propane Natural Gas Ethanol Several Products: E10, E15 & E85 Diesel or Biodiesel Electric Battery (fork lifts, plug-in cars, golf carts) Wired (Subway Trains)

18 Transportation Fuels Cars, Light Trucks
Gas, Diesel, Biofuels, Propane, Natural Gas, Electric Medium & Long Haul Trucks Diesel, Biodiesel, Natural Gas Train Diesel, Electric Plane Petroleum Based Jet-Fuel Ship Diesel or Bunker Fuels

19 Data Source:

20 Data Source:

21 Barriers to Substitution
Common barriers: Availability Utility companies E85 fuel Price Capital Investments Selling your gasoline car and buying an electric car Selling your non-flex fuel vehicle and buying a flex fuel vehicle

22 Data Source:

23 Short Term vs. Long Term Options
Drive less Short & Long Term  Lower Utility Reduce Shipping Short & Long Term  Lower Utility, Higher Costs Improve fuel efficiency Long Term  Capital Investment Required Increase use of alternatives Biofuels: Short & Long Term  ????? Electric: Long Term  Capital Investments & Technology Natural Gas: Mid-Term  Capital Investments

24 Substitution & Elasticity
Demand for transportation fuels is relatively inelastic

25 Do State or Federal Governments play a role in Ethanol?

26 Government Involvement
Environmental Issues Oxygenate Requirements (Clean Air Act-EPA) Missoula MTBE Bans State Level Montana has a ban (Sort of) About ½ of states ban MTBE

27 Renewable Fuels Standard

28 Data Source: And EIA’s Monthly Energy Review

29 Data Source:

30 Why is this important?

31 2012 Ethanol Blend Level 9.9% of Gasoline Consumption

32 Why Don’t Americans Purchase E85?
Availability?? Car Compatibility?? Price??

33 Expanding Ethanol Use E15 Blends
EPA approved E15 for 2007 and newer vehicles October 13, 2010 EPA approved E15 for vehicles January 21, 2011

34 E15 Issues Retail Infrastructure
Gas Stations currently 3 to 6 products Low Octane Gasoline (85.5 to 87) Mid Grade Gasoline (88-89) Premium Gasoline (91)

35 Montana’s Role in Ethanol
No commercial ethanol production in Montana No small scale fuel ethanol production technology 2012 Montana corn production was 4.5M bushels If all of it was used for ethanol… MT could produce 13.3 million gallons of ethanol This is about 2.7% of Montana gasoline use 2012:

36 What is the future of ethanol?
Will E15 replace with E10 or will it be an additional option? What happens if the Renewable Fuels Standard is reduced or eliminated? What if gasoline consumption falls? Better fuel economy Natural Gas Vehicles Electric Vehicles

37 Which best describes the relationship between Ethanol & Gasoline?
They are substitute goods They are complementary goods Not sure

38 Questions Joel Schumacher 406-994-6637

Download ppt "Ethanol & Petroleum: Substitute Goods or Complementary Goods"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google