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Carbon Emissions. Lesson Objectives GHGs and Global Warming Familiarize with carbon emissions Recognize sources of carbon emissions What regulatory action.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Emissions. Lesson Objectives GHGs and Global Warming Familiarize with carbon emissions Recognize sources of carbon emissions What regulatory action."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Emissions

2 Lesson Objectives GHGs and Global Warming Familiarize with carbon emissions Recognize sources of carbon emissions What regulatory action has been done? How can we reduce emissions from MSW sources? How can reducing carbon emissions be worth millions of $$$? What about the Future?

3 Greenhouse Gases Components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect and necessary to life on Earth but also responsible for Global Warming Including: - Water vapor, 36~70% - Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), 9~26% - Methane (CH 4 ), 4~9% - Ozone (O 3 ), 3~7% - Other (N 2 O, SF 6, …)

4 Greenhouse Gases Not all greenhouse gases are a threat to the environment The most important greenhouse gases for environmental researchers: - Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and, - Methane (CH 4 ) CO 2 and CH 4 form a large portion of the greenhouse gases

5 Global Warming An increase in the Earths temperature has been observed during the past decades, believed to be due to increase of GHGs

6 Global Warming What happens: Catastrophe Severe weather conditions, Sea level increase, Health effect, Change in agricultural pattern, …

7 Global Warming Can cause a 7.5 ft raise in sea level in the next century This can take about one third of the present Floridas dry land under sea water

8 Global Warming Potential (GWP) GWP is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming GWP is a relative scale comparing the gas in question to that of the same mass of CO 2 GWP of CH 4 is 21

9 Carbon Concentration The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide remained between 260 and 280 ppm for the 10,000 years between the end of the last glacial maximum and the start of the industrial era

10 Carbon Concentration The present atmospheric carbon concentration is believed to have reached approximately 380 ppm The maximum possible atmospheric carbon concentration threatening natural condition on Earth is believed to be in the order of 550 to 600 ppm

11 Carbon Concentration

12 Carbon Emission Sources Biogenic or Natural Sources: - Natural activities of the environment Anthropogenic Sources: - Sources from human activities - CO 2 and CH 4 have major anthropogenic sources

13 Natural Sources Natural sources: More than 20 times greater concentration than human sources Natural sources are closely balanced by natural sinks (Carbon Sequestration)

14 Anthropogenic Sources Major anthropogenic carbon sources: - Electricity generations plants, 21% - Industrial processes, 17% - Transportation, 14% - Agricultural byproducts, 13% - Fossil fuel processing, 11% - Residential and commercial, 10% - Biomass burning, 10% - Waste disposal, 4%

15 Carbon Footprint A measure of the impact human activities on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced Units: Equivalent carbon dioxide – eCO 2 Everyday activities: - Driving to school, - Drinking a bottle of water, - Eating daily food, - Turning on a light, …

16 Regulatory Actions 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); developed nations agreed to non-binding 1990 GHG levels by 2000 1997 Kyoto Conference - The Kyoto Protocol; some participants made binding commitment to 1990 GHG levels (US has not ratified)

17 Regulatory Actions 2007 Bali Conference; US agrees to Agree July 2008 G8 Conference; G8 Nations agree to cut 50% of emissions by 2050 Statewide regulations limiting greenhouse gas emissions include: - California AB-32, - Florida Executive Order 07-127, - Regional GHG Initiative (RGGI), - Western Climate Initiative (WGI)

18 Regulatory Actions

19 Waste Management Waste management solutions to reduce carbon footprint, 3 Rs: - Reduce - Reuse - Recycle Waste disposal (Refuse): - Incineration - Landfill

20 Waste Management IPCC Estimate of Worldwide Landfill Methane Emissions (BAU)

21 Waste Management Waste to Energy: Incineration: Directly producing thermal energy Landfill Gas: o Generated from the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the disposed waste, o Main components: methane 50-60%, carbon dioxide 40- 50% and other trace gases, o Using methane as a source of energy Market Solutions: Taxation Cap & Trade

22 Waste Management

23 Carbon Balance

24 LFG to Energy Landfill gas (LFG) has a fuel value of 18-22 MJ/m 3, due to methane content As of December 2007 there were 435 landfills capturing about 7.1 billion m 3 of LFG in the US producing some 10.5 billion kWh, equivalent to powering 810,000 homes and heating 547,000

25 LFG to Energy Net GHG Emissions from Landfilling – US EPA Default Values

26 The Carbon Market An official and regulated market in EU countries, but still a voluntary market in the US US voluntary market: – Companies paying voluntarily for carbon emission reduction and carbon credits usually because of investment for future, commercial interest, personal interest, …

27 The Carbon Market

28 Carbon market options: - Carbon Offset Credit - Fuel Production - Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) - Renewable Energy Production Tax Credits (PTCs)

29 LFG Carbon Market

30 Orange County's, FL, LFGE system: - More than 10,000 m 3 /hr LFG for 20 year, - Can generate electricity for 13,000 homes, - Takes advantage of $4 million in federal funding and tax incentives City of Albany Landfill, NY, potential C values: - Estimated 33,638 MWh/yr electricity from LFG - Carbon Credit value $ 1,617,919 - REC value $ 1,514,000 per year (@ $45/MWh) - PTC value $ 336,384 per year (@ $10/MWh)

31 Future The US voluntary carbon market trading value has tripled from 2006 to 2007, this trend is foreseen to be continuing Both Obama and McCain support starting a regulated carbon emissions Cap-&-Trade program We wont be getting any greener if we do nothing, so at least we can try by doing something … maybe we can do some good for our future generations

32 Example A landfill in some county is receiving 50,000 tons of MSW annually and is operating a LFG to energy plant with recovery rate of 500 ft 3 LFG per ton MSW (50% methane content). Estimate the carbon value for this LFGE project counting in each possible option and assuming the landfill is not regulated yet to offset carbon emissions and the methane destroy efficiency is 100%. –Carbon offset value, at $ 1 per ft 3 CH 4 –Electricity value, at 1x10 -3 MWh electricity per ft 3 methane gas and electricity price is $100 per MWh –RECs value, at $20 per MWh –PTCs value, at $10 per MWh

33 Solution Step 1: Calculate the generated methane … 50,000 x 500 x 0.50 = 12.5x10 6 ft 3 CH 4

34 Solution Step 2: Calculate the electricity produced from methane … (12.5x10 6 ) x (1x10 -3 ) = 12,500 MWh

35 Solution Step 3: Calculate each value … Carbon offset value: (12.5x10 6 ) x 1 = $ 12,500,000 /yr Electricity value: 12,500 x 100 = $ 1,250,000 /yr

36 Solution RECs: 12,500 x 20 = $ 250,000 /yr PTCs: 12,500 x 10 = $ 125,000 /yr

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