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Chapter 9, part 1 Articulations.

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1 Chapter 9, part 1 Articulations

2 Learning Objectives Contrast the major categories of joints, and explain the relationship between structure and function for each. Describe the structure of a synovial joint. Describe the dynamic movements of the skeleton. List the types of synovial joint, and discuss the relationship of structure to function in each.

3 Learning Objectives Describe the structure and function of the vertebrae, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints. Describe the relationship between joint strength and mobility. Describe the effects of aging on the joints.

4 SECTION 9-1 A Classification of Joints

5 Articulations Articulations Where two bones interconnect
Immovable joints Synarthroses, or bony Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or fibrous / cartilagenous Freely moveable joints Diarthroses, or synovial

6 Synarthroses (immovable joints)
Four major types Suture = skull bones bound together by dense connective tissue Gomphosis = teeth bound to bony sockets by periodontal ligaments Synchondrosis = two bones bound by rigid cartilaginous bridge Syntosis = two bones completely fused

7 Amphiarthroses (slightly movable joints)
Two major types Syndesmosis = bones connected by a ligament Symphysis = bone separated by fibrocartilage

8 Diarthroses (freely movable joints)
Bony surfaces enclosed within articular capsule Bony surfaces covered by articular cartilage Bony surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid Structures include Menisci Fat pads Accessory ligaments Bursae

9 Figure 9.1 The Structure of a Synovial Joint

10 SECTION 9-2 Articular Form and Function

11 Dynamic motion Dynamic motion Linear motion Angular motion Rotation
Joints classified based on type of motion permitted Monaxial Biaxial Triaxial

12 Figure 9.2 A Simple Model of Articular Motion

13 Types of movement Gliding motion Two surfaces slide past one another
Angular motion Flexion, extension, hyperextension Abduction, adduction Circumduction

14 Figure 9.3 Angular Movements
PLAY Animation: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension Figure 9.3

15 Rotational movement Left or right
Medial (internal) or lateral (external) Pronation or supination in the bones of the forearm only

16 Figure 9.4 Rotational Movements
Figure 9.4a,b

17 Figure 9.4 Rotational Movements
Figure 9.4c

18 Special movement Movements of the foot Inversion and eversion
Plantar flexion and dorsiflexion Movements of the thumb Opposition

19 Other movements Protraction moves a structure anteriorly
Retraction moves a structure posteriorly Elevation moves a structure superiorly Depression moves a structure inferiorly Lateral flexion bends the vertebrae to one side

20 Figure 9.5 Special Movements

21 Structural classification of joints
Gliding joints permit movement in a single plane Hinge joints are monaxial joints permitting angular motion in one plane Pivot joints are monaxial joints that permit rotation Ellipsoid joints are biaxial joints that pit one bone in an oval depression of another Saddle joints are biaxial joints with one concave and one convex bone face Ball-and-socket joints are triaxial joints that permit rotation and other movements

22 Figure 9.6 A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints

23 Figure 9.6 A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints
PLAY Animation: Joint Motion Figure 9.6

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