Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "PILE FOUNDATION."— Presentation transcript:



3 Piles – What? Piles are columnar elements in a foundation which have the function of transferring load from the superstructure through weak compressible strata or through water, onto stiffer or more compact and less compressible soils or onto rock.

4 Piles – When? When the strata at or just below the ground surface is highly compressible and very weak to support the load transmitted by the structure. When the plan of the structure is irregular relative to its outline and load distribution. for the transmission of structural loads through deep water to a firm stratum. to resist horizontal forces in addition to support the vertical loads. when the soil conditions are such that a wash out, erosion or scour of soil may occur from underneath a shallow foundation. To resist uplift forces - transmission towers, off-shore platforms expansive soils - swell or shrink as the water content changes. Collapsible soils

5 Some Examples Multistoried Building Resting on Piles

6 Some Examples Piles Used to Resist Uplift Forces

7 Some Examples Piles used to Resist lateral Loads

8 Classification of Piles
Based on Material Steel Piles, Concrete Piles, Timber Piles, Composite Piles. Based on Load Transfer End Bearing Piles, Friction Piles, Combined End bearing and Friction Piles Based on Method of Installation Driven Piles, Driven Cast-in-situ Piles, Bored and Cast-in-situ Piles, Screw Piles, Jacked Piles. Based on Use Load Bearing Piles, Compaction Piles, Sheet Piles, Fender Piles, Anchor Piles. Based on Displacement of Soil Displacement Piles, Non-Displacement Piles.

9 Selection of Piles Length of pile in relation to the load and type of soil Character of structure Availability of materials Type of loading Factors causing deterioration Ease of maintenance Estimated costs of types of piles, taking into account the initial cost, life expectancy and Cost of maintenance Availability of funds

10 Load Transfer Mechanism

11 Load Transfer Mechanism

12 Types of Failure of Piles
Buckling in very weak surrounding soil

13 Types of Failure of Piles
General Shear Failure in Strong Lower Soil

14 Types of Failure of Piles
Soil of Uniform Strength

15 Types of Failure of Piles
Low Strength Soil in Lower Layer, Skin Friction Predominates

16 Types of Failure of Piles
Skin Friction in Tension

17 Carrying Capacity of Piles
Using Theory (c,φ) Using SPT value Using SCPT Value Using Dynamic Formula Pile Load Test Static Formula In-situ Penetration Tests

18 STATIC METHOD Qu = Ultimate failure load
Qp or Qb = Point (base or tip) resistance Qs = Shaft resistance developed by friction (or adhesion) between the soil and the pile shaft

End Bearing Capacity Frictional Resistance Ultimate Load

End Bearing Capacity Frictional Resistance Net Ultimate Load Net Bearing Capacity

21 Problem 1 A concrete pile of 45 cm diameter was driven into sand of loose to medium density to a depth of 15m. The following properties are known: (a) Average unit weight of soil along the length of the pile, y = 17.5 kN/m3 , average φ = 30°, (b) average Ks = 1.0 and δ= Calculate (a) the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile, and (b) the allowable load with Fs = 2.5. Assume the water table is at great depth.

22 Solution Qu = 1841 kN Qa = 736 kN

23 Problem 2 Assume in Ex. 1 that the water table is at the ground surface and γsat= 18.5 kN/m3. All the other data remain the same. Calculate Qu and Qa.

24 Solution Qu = 914 kN Qa = 366 kN

25 Calculation of Qb and Qf
Vesic Tomlinson Berezantsev Meyerhof Janbu Coyle and Castello

26 Thank you


28 Driven Piles - Advantages
Piles of any size, length and shape can be made in advance and used at the site. – rapid progress of work Driven into granular soil - compacts the adjacent soil mass - increase in bearing capacity The work is neat and clean Supervision of work at the site can be reduced to a minimum. Storage space required is very much less. In places where it is advisable not to drill holes for fear of meeting ground water under pressure. For works over water such as piles in wharf structures or jetties.

29 Driven Piles - Disadvantages
Must be properly reinforced to withstand handling stresses during transportation and driving. Advance planning is required for handling and driving. Requires heavy equipment for handling and driving. Since the exact length required at the site cannot be determined in advance, the method involves cutting off extra lengths or adding more lengths - increased cost of project Driven piles are not suitable in soils of poor drainage qualities – Soil heaving or lifting Where the foundations of adjacent structures are likely to be affected due to the vibrations generated by the driving of piles, driven piles should not be used.

30 Bored Piles - Advantages
Piles of any size and length may be constructed at the site. Damage due to driving and handling that is common in precast piles is eliminated in this case. Ideally suited in places where vibrations of any type are required to be avoided to preserve the safety of the adjoining structure. suitable in soils of poor drainage qualities

31 Bored Piles - Disadvantages
Requires careful supervision and quality control of all the materials used in the construction. It needs sufficient storage space for all the materials used in the construction. The advantage of increased bearing capacity due to compaction in granular soil that could be obtained by a driven pile is not produced by a cast-in-situ pile. where there is heavy current of ground water flow or artesian pressure - very difficult to construct

32 Based on SPT Values Displacement piles Bored Piles For H- piles Where
Qu ultimate total load in kN Ncor average corrected SPT value below pile tip corrected average SPT value along the pile shaft Ab base area of pile in m2 (for H-piles including the soil between the flanges) As shaft surface area in m2

33 Bearing Capacity based on SCPT
Vander Veen's method Schmertmann's method

34 Vander Veen’s Method Ultimate load capacity of pile
Pile base resistance, Ultimate skin friction

35 Schmertmann's method Pile base resistance


37 Ultimate Skin Load - Cohesionless Soil

38 Ultimate Skin Load - Cohesionless Soil


Download ppt "PILE FOUNDATION."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google