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FATF Revised Recommendations January 2013 Ben Tonner Attorney 1.

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Presentation on theme: "FATF Revised Recommendations January 2013 Ben Tonner Attorney 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 FATF Revised Recommendations January 2013 Ben Tonner Attorney 1

2 Overview Part 1 Background FATF Trusts and Corporate Services Part 2 The Revised FATF Recommendations Conclusions and predictions 2

3 The Financial Action Task Force 3

4 FATF The most influential body youve never heard of Palmer, Global Witness and the Task Force on Financial Integrity and Economic Development G7, Paris 1989, independent policy maker 4

5 FATF Criminalization Confiscation Regulation FIs and DNFIs Intelligence Co-operation 5

6 Role of FATF Global standards – 40 Recommendations – National legislation/regulations Mutual Evaluation – Non-cooperative jurisdictions – Countermeasures (R. 19) 6

7 Cayman Islands Criminal Justice (International Co-operation) Law (2010) Confidential Relationships (Preservation) Law 2009 Proceeds of Crime Law 2008 Money Laundering Regulations 2010 Guidance Notes 2010 Terrorism Law 2008 The Monetary Authority Law 2010 7

8 Trusts The greatest and most distinctive achievement performed by Englishmen in the field of jurisprudence. The Collected papers of Frederic William Maitland, ed. Fisher, Cambridge, 1911, 3 vols, at 271. 8

9 Trusts Is the trust concept, that forms a bewildering variety of trusts, not too much of an untamed, unruly, wild horse... [such] that it can be ridden by any rider desiring to escape the clutches of creditors, spouses, heirs, tax inspectors and anti-money laundering police? Is the trust concept not a dubious device too capable of exploitation by dishonest people so that its scope should be restricted and not enlarged? Professor David Hayton, English Trusts and Their Commercial Counterparts in Continental Europe, 2002 9

10 Typology Reports The Misuse of Corporate Vehicles, including Trust and Company Service Providers 2006 Money Laundering Using Trusts and Company Service Providers 2010 Recommendations 22 and 23 10

11 Revisions to FATF Recommendations February 2012 40 + 9 now 40 Ahead of 4 th round MEV National revisions necessary 11

12 FATF Revisions 1.Enforcement 2.Risk Based Approach (RBA) 3.International Co-operation 4.Tax crime now predicate offence 5.Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs) 6.Ultimate Beneficial Ownership (UBO) 12

13 Enforcement Presidency of Bjorn Aamo and 4 th Round of MEVs To be able to identify suspicious, economically unsound structures, law enforcement needs to understand the rationale behind legitimate structures. At the moment, law enforcements understanding of corporate law is limited. The Puppet Masters, Willebois, Halter, Harrison, Park and Sharman, Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, 2011 13

14 Risk Based Approach (R.1) Countries should require financial institutions and designated non-financial businesses and professions (DNFBPs) to indentify, assess and take effective action to mitigate their money laundering and terrorist financing risks RBA guidance for Trust and Companies Service Providers (TCSPs) High risk and EDD (R. 10) 14

15 International Co-operation (R.2 and Pt G) Internally/Domestically Internationally: – Regulators – FIUs – Enforcement agencies – Legal departments – Tax authorities 15

16 Tax as predicate offence POCL 2008 s.136 (1) A person [in the regulated sector] commits an offence if (a) he knows of, suspects or has reasonable grounds for knowing or suspecting that another person is engaged in criminal conduct; and (c) he does not make the required disclosure to a nominated officer, or the Financial Reporting Authority What is criminal conduct? POCL 2008, s.144 Conduct which constitutes an offence in any part of the [Cayman] islands or would constitute an offence in any part of the islands if it occurred here 16

17 Politically Exposed Persons (R.12) Enhanced Due Diligence Specific Risk Factors in the Laundering of Proceeds of Corruption Oct 2012 Foreign and domestic Family and close associates GN 3.49 – 3.53 17

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19 Beneficial Ownership R. 24 Transparency and beneficial ownership of legal persons R. 25 Transparency and beneficial ownership of legal arrangements 19

20 Beneficial Ownership There should be an equivalent level of transparency about the beneficial ownership of trusts and their legal arrangements as there is about companies The Review of the Standards – Preparation for the 4 th Round of Mutual Evaluation – Second public consultation June 2011, paragraph 12 20

21 Beneficial Ownership There is a major distinction between transparency of beneficial ownership to competent authorities and broader transparency to the general public. Most jurisdictions demand a high degree of public transparency of companies because they trade with the public and obtain credit. Trusts, in contrast, are typically private, family arrangements. Trusts under scrutiny, George Hodgson (STEP Deputy Executive), September 2011 21

22 Beneficial Ownership Regulated entities to collect evidence of UBO (R. 24 and 25 and IN) Global Shell Games: testing Money Launderers and Terrorist Financiers Access to Shell Companies Findley, Neilson and Sharman, 2012 – Kenya, US vs IFCs Guidance Notes 3.31 – It will normally be necessary to obtain satisfactory evidence of the identity of each of the principle beneficial owners being any person holding 10% interest or more Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) – With respect to a trust any person who holds directly or indirectly more than 10% of the beneficial interest of the trust 22

23 Conclusions Legislative revision Anticipate changes – RBO + more rigorous enforcement – PEPS – Tax as predicate – UBO Plenary Engagement FATF mandate Opportunity 23

24 Ben Tonner Attorney Cayman Islands January 2013 24

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