Small Denomination Time Deposits Size of $100,000 or less. Held by individuals. Usually called certificates of deposit. Deposits held for a fixed time period with a fixed and guaranteed interest rate.
Individual Money Market Mutual Fund Balances Technically, these are shares in a mutual fund company that invests in short term credit. Require a high minimum balance Have limited check writing privileges (usually 3-4 per month)
The Money Supply: MZM M 2 – Small CDs + MMMF held by businesses = MZM
The Money Supply: MZM The logic of MZM is that the MMMF held by businesses are used for their purchases. And small CDs are a type of investment, rather than a source of spending.
Liquidity Defined as: The ease with which an asset can be converted quickly into cash with little or no loss of purchasing power.
Liquidity Everything in M1 can be used to make purchases, right away. Everything in M2 needs to be converted to something else before you can make a purchase.
Why are There Banks? Banks bring together savers and borrowers
Why are There Banks? Savers turn their funds over to banks to hold and pay interest Borrowers go to banks to obtain funds that they need Borrowers repay loans plus interest. Banks use additional money to lend again and pay interest to savers
Why are there banks? Savers $=> Banks $=> Borrowers Borrowers $ + $=> Banks $ +$=> Savers
What are financial intermediaries? Banks = short hand for financial intermediaries.
Financial Intermediaries Include much more than banks: Commercial banks -THE National bank Thrift institutions - Include savings and loans and credit unions - Mississippi Valley Credit Union
Financial Intermediaries Insurance Companies - Metropolitan Life Insurance Pension Funds - John Deere pension plan
Financial Intermediaries Money Market Mutual Funds – such as Magellan or Vanguard Securities Firms – such as Goldman Sachs, Lehman Brothers
The US Banking Structure Three parts: Central Bank – The Federal Reserve bank Commercial Banks Thrift Institutions – include savings and loans and credit unions
Long Run Trends 1.Relative decline in banks and thrifts 2.Consolidation among banks and thrifts 3.Barriers between banks and thrifts nearly completely broken down 4.Globalization of financial markets 5.Electronic payments
Long Run Trends 1.Relative decline of banks and thrifts - In 1980, banks and thrifts had nearly 60% of financial assets - As of 2005, that percentage had fallen to 24%
Long Run Trends 2.Consolidation - Due to the S&L crisis of the 1980s, many hundreds of savings & loans failed, or were forced to merge before they failed.
Long Run Trends 2.Consolidation - Waves of mergers among banks of all types. -We have 5200 fewer banks than in 1990.
Long Run Trends 3. Barriers between banks and thrifts nearly completely broken down - All types of financial services are offered by all types of financial intermediaries now
Long Run Trends 4. Globalization of financial markets - - Non US financial intermediaries of all types are found in many parts of the US - and vice-versa
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments - Credit cards - Debit cards - Electronic money (Paypal) - Smart cards - Stored value cards
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments Credit cards -Credit cards are actually loans from the company to the cardholder. -Act like M1
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments Debit cards -Debit cards replace paper checks. - Immediately deducted from checking accounts. -Act like M1
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments Electronic Money - Such as Paypal. - A form of money, online. - Acts like M1.
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments Smart cards - Contains computer chip. - Linked to your account. - Can download money from your account to the smart card.
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments Value added cards - By with M 1. - Have a preset value in them, use up. - Gift cards
Long Run Trends 5. Electronic Payments All of these types of electronic payments have grown dramatically in recent years. Reduces need for cash and/or checks