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Chemistries and Physics of Water Purification

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistries and Physics of Water Purification"— Presentation transcript:

0 Reverse Osmosis Water System And Its Technologies

1 Chemistries and Physics of Water Purification

2 Water Purification Technologies
Topics Contaminants in Water Water Purification Technologies

3 Inorganic Ions (Dissolved Solids)
Contaminants In Water Feed Water Contaminates Inorganic Ions (Dissolved Solids) Cations Anions Organics Natural Man Made Particles Non Dissolved Solid Matter Colloids Microorganisms Bacteria , Algae , Micro fungi, Endotoxin

4 Water Purification Technologies

5 Water Purification Technologies
Filtration Chlorine removal Scale Control Reverse Osmosis Ion Exchange Ultra filtration Ultraviolet Storage Tank Distribution Loops Distillation

6 Filtration Depth Filters - Entrapment Screen Filters - Sieving,

7 Depth Filter Media Cotton Fibers, Glass Fibers Polypropylene, Nylon
Filaments, Sand Grains Pore Rating Nominal (98% Removal) Range um or combinations Thickness 10-30mm

8 Membrane Micro Filter Media Nylon, Teflon, Cellulose Esters
Pore Rating Absolute (100% Removal) Range 0.1 to 10 um Thickness 150um

9 Chlorine Removal Activated Carbon Raw Materials Activation
Coconut Shell, Wood, Lignite Oil / Plastic Activation Heat, Chemical Activation generates a highly porous structure with a large surface area for Wood, Lignite. Surface area 1000 m2 /gram Activated Carbon Bead Remove Chlorine Remove Organics

10 Sodium Bisulfite Sodium Bisulfite (NaHSO3) is a reducing agent capable of dechlorinating the feed water to a Reverse Osmosis System. Dechlorination reactions NaHSO3+ CL2+ H2O NaHSO4+ 2HCl 1 ppm of chlorine (CL2) requires 1.46 ppm of NaHSO3 To ensure complete Dechlorination Add 10% excess of sodium bisulphite

11 Ion Exchange

12 Ion Exchange Process

13 Ion Exchange Regeneration

14 Ion Exchange Regeneration

15 Reverse osmosis (RO) theory
raw water High pressure Feed water under pressure Reject Semi-permeable membrane Permeate drain or recycle Low pressure Purified water

16 Thin Film Composite Membrane
Thin Film Layer Support Structure

17 Reverse Osmosis

18 Reverse Osmosis

19 Reverse Osmosis Performance Recovery
% Rejection of Inorganic Ions 99% Rejection of Organics 99% Rejection of Particles and Microorganisms Recovery % of Feed Water

20 Ion Exchange

21 Mixed Bed Exchange Process

22 Mixed Bed Exchange Process

23 Mixed Bed Regeneration

24 Mixed Bed Regeneration

25 Electro Deionization

26 Electro Deionization

27 Ultra-Filtration Can be used for WFI or for Water For Final Rinsing for parenteral manufacturing (if permitted) Removes organic contaminants, such as endotoxins Operation at 80°C, and sterilization at 121 °C

28 Ultra-Violet

29 Oxidation of Organic Compound

30 Oxidation of Organic Compound

31 Storage Tank Design Considerations Sized with Make-Up system
Store water protected from bacterial growth Vent filter Sanitary Overflow Tank UV light or Spray Ball Conical bottom Steam or Ozone sterilization Rupture Disk should always have monitor Smaller the better

32 Typical Water Storage And Distribution Schematic
Water must be kept circulating Spray ball Cartridge filter 1 µm Outlets Hygienic pump Optional in-line filter 0,2 µm UV light Feed Water Hydrophobic air filter & burst disc

33 Design Considerations Effective control of bacteria
Distribution Loops Design Considerations Effective control of bacteria Most microorganisms are destroyed at 80°C which is a typical hot loop temperature WFI systems will incorporate heat exchangers and monitoring in the distribution loop to maintain 80°C Some purified water systems will use heat at 80°C to perform periodic sanitizations

34 There should be no dead legs
Distribution Loops Water scours deadleg If D=25mm & distance X is greater than 50mm, we have a dead leg that is too long. Deadleg section <2D Flow direction arrows on pipes are important Sanitary Valve D X There should be no dead legs Ball valves are unacceptable Bacteria can grow when the valve is closed The water is contaminated as it passes through the valve Stagnant water inside valve

35 Distribution Loops

36 Distillation

37 Thank You For Attending Saima Muzaffar 2nd February, 2012

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