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Implementing world best practice ideas for car-free Sheffield Professor SC Lenny Koh The University of Sheffield Management School
12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 2 Contents Introduction Background information – brief recap Is car-free Sheffield achievable Ideas: minimize high pollution cars Ideas: increase public transport facilities and service Tram Bike Public transport Road congestion
12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 3 Inspiration for this talk CO2 reduction interventions for transport: Towards a low carbon direction delivered in October 2010. Examples from Japan, Denmark and Germany
Japan Outrun their own target to reduce CO 2 emissions from transport sector: The target figure for 2010 CO 2 emissions decrease was 240 to 243 million tons, by 2007 it was already at 246 million tons Actions taken: Driving fuel-efficient lightweight passenger cars Promoting eco-driving. Improved traffic flow to allow vehicles to increase their speed, which can improve fuel efficiency. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 4
Denmark Actions taken: Electric cars Government investment into research Hydrogen and electricity-powered cars exempt from tax until 2012. Challenges the idea of owning a car: leasing and sharing Bicycles Improved public transport Other measures investigated by the government Alternative fuels for buses, eco-driving, certification scheme, etc 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 5
Germany – the Freiburg inspiration Germany's ecological capital. Over 10 years CO 2 reduced by more than 10% per capita, 100% increase in public transport use Up to 35% of residents choosing to live without a car Car-free town centre and a 30 kph zone for residential streets, Low-cost flat-rate monthly "Environment ticket" for the region-wide bus service No car = lower cost of housing Motor vehicle use decreasing Bikes 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 6
Is car-free Sheffield achievable? 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 7
What can we do for Sheffield? Minimise high pollution cars Increase public transport facilities and service 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 8
Minimise high pollution cars Preferential taxation for fuel-efficient lightweight passenger cars Electric cars: challenges, impact and opportunities 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 9
Is preferential taxation for fuel- efficient lightweight passenger cars a possibility? 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 10
Electric Vehicles - Overview 2 Types of Electric Vehicles: All Electric Vehicle (EV) Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) DfT Research suggests EV/ PHEVs could realise a 40% benefit in CO2 savings – utilising existing UK power mix. However, this could be increased with more low-carbon sources of power generation. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 11
Electric Vehicles - Overview 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 12
Electric Vehicles - Overview Some current and upcoming EV/ PHEVs: 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 13
Electric Vehicles - Challenges Due to vehicle development lead times, Electric Vehicles will initially be introduced into the UK market in low volumes with mass production and volume availability unlikely to occur before 2014. Wide spread roll-out and uptake of EVs and PHEVs after 2014 will require: An increase in consumer confidence and education; Improvement in battery performance and cost; Charging infrastructure which keeps pace with demand; and, Stimulation of the market through incentives which encourage the uptake. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 14
12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 15 Impact on the National Grid: The DfT has undertaken a high level assessment of the impact of EV/ PHEVs on national energy networks through a number of scenario based forecasts in the period up to 2030: Electric Vehicles - Impact
The EV is assumed to have an efficiency of 0.16kWh/km in 2010, 0.13kWh/km in 2020, and 0.11kWh/km in 2030 Key finding – Sufficient national generating capacity to cope with the uptake assuming that demand for charging is targeted at off-peak periods where there is currently surplus capacity. This would be achieved through smart metering, charging and off peak tariffs. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 16
Electric Vehicles - Opportunities The development of EV/ PHEV technology provides an opportunity for the UK to take a lead in the development and deployment of the new technologies required. There are national and regional opportunities for job creation throughout the supply chain including: The development of batteries, internal combustion engines for hybrids, electric motors, control systems, energy recovery systems, battery recycling and charging infrastructure. Regional Example - CO2Sence is heading up a bid for a share of European funding (OLEV, Plugged in Places scheme) worth up to £20 million to develop a network of electric vehicle charging points across the region. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 17
Electric Vehicles - Opportunities Facts and Figures (DfT, 2008): The UK is the second largest passenger car market in Europe; The sector employs 194,000 people; It contributes an annual £9.6bn of added value to the countrys economy; 61% of the commercial vehicles in the UK are exported. This accounts for 13% of total UK manufacturing exports 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 18
12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 19 Appendix 1 – EV Grid Impact
Public transport Trams Bikes Buses Trains 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 20
Trams 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 21
12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 22 Trams User-friendly Comfortable Frequent Operate till midnight Reliable Environmentally friendly Problem? Limited routes – some areas not connected at all.
12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 23 Bikes
Yes No CO 2 Great source of exercise Cost-effective No Poor cycle path network especially in congested areas. Lack of bike parking and shower facilities at workplace. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 24
Bike hire system Up and running in London Ideal for short trips in town No need to buy own bike Multiple ways of paying for rental The fees could pay for developing cycle path network 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 25
Tram-and-bike system Ideal for longer journeys: Bike to the tram stop, park your bike and take the tram. Do the opposite for your return journey. Faster than walking without the need for a car. Adds exercise to your daily routine. No petrol costs. Solution for bike parking. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 26
Public transport – train/bus 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 27
Public transport – train/bus Regarded as rather unreliable Long journeys on bus routes Train prices and VAT increase mean more expensive fares Possibilities? Cheaper / flat-rate fares for region-wide public transport One monthly/weekly ticket for all carriers Preferential pricing for those who dont own a car 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 28
Road congestion 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 29
Road congestion Transportation policy and road improvement to be planned early for growing areas Delivery of goods needs to be addressed to avoid HGV entering the city Hub and Spoke. 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 30
Thank you! 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 31
Questions 12/06/2014© The University of Sheffield 32
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