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Ch. 18 Guided Reading and Review answers

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1 Ch. 18 Guided Reading and Review answers

2 Ch. 18 – section 1 questions It created the national judiciary.
What did Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution create? It created the national judiciary.

3 2. What are constitutional courts?
Federal courts, created by Congress, which exercise broad judicial powers (district courts, Courts of Appeals, Trade Court, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit)

4 3. What are special courts?
Courts with narrow jurisdiction

5 4. Under what circumstances may federal courts hear a case?
constitutional issues – wide variety of cases high seas U.S. officers one of the 50 states a foreign government citizens of different states

6 5. What is the procedure for the selection of federal judges?
Presidential appointment, for life, approved or rejected by Senate

7 6. What is the primary function of federal judges?
To hear and decide cases

8 7. How long are the terms of judges of constitutional courts?

9 8. How long are the terms of judges in special courts?
8-15 years

10 Ch. 18 – Section 1 Quiz d. 1. one who initiates a suit
e. 2. the party against whom a suit is brought a. 3. cases that can only be heard in federal courts have this c. 4. court in which a case is first heard has this b. 5. cases that can be heard either in federal or state courts have this exclusive jurisdiction b. concurrent jurisdiction c. original jurisdiction d. plaintiff e. defendant

11 II. Multiple Choice 6. The majority of the cases heard in the United States each year are heard in a. district courts b. state courts c. appellate courts d. constitutional courts

12 7. Special courts are created by
a. Congress b. the President c. federal regulatory agencies d. the states

13 8. Which of the following does NOT have significant impact on the appointments of federal judges?
a. the President’s ideology b. the leaders of the party to which the President belongs c. the senators from the state in which the appointee will serve d. the current members of the Supreme Court

14 9. Judges of the constitutional courts are
a. appointed to 15-year terms. b. appointed for life. c. elected by the Supreme Court d. appointed to 10-year terms

15 10. Federal marshals do all of the following EXCEPT
a. arrest persons accused of federal crimes b. serve legal papers c. execute court orders and decisions d. try persons charged with certain minor offenses

16 Section 2 questions On what basis is the United States divided into judicial districts? Each state has 1 district; the more populated states have more than one (Texas has 4), also D.C. and Puerto Rico

17 2. When and why were the court of appeals created?
1891 – to take some of the load off the Supreme Court

18 3. Define: criminal case – some action has been declared a crime; if a person commits a crime, society prosecutes civil case – dispute over contract or patent infringement; also disputes over rights listed in Constitution c. docket – list of cases to be heard

19 Ch. 18 – Section 2 quiz F 1. About 20% of the cases that come before federal judges are tried in the district courts. T 2. Usually, cases tried in district courts are heard by a single judge. F 3. The circuit courts are the only federal courts that use grand and petit juries. T 4. Appellate courts hear appeals from the decisions of federal regulatory agencies. T 5. The Trade Court hears only civil cases.

20 II. Multiple Choice 6. District courts cover an assigned territory that is based primarily on a. state boundaries b. population c. geographic region d. income level

21 7. The circuit courts were created
a. to relieve the Supreme Court of the burden of hearing most appeals. b. to relieve the district courts of the burden of hearing cases involving criminal charges. c. to handle all cases involving disputes among citizens of different states. d. to relieve the district courts of the burden of hearing civil cases.

22 8. In what types of cases do the courts of appeals have original jurisdiction?
a. civil cases involving more than $250,000 b. no types of cases c. cases appealing decisions of the state supreme courts d. cases in which the U.S. gov’t is the defendant

23 9. Cases brought before the courts of appeals are usually heard by
a. a single judge b. a panel of three judges c. a panel of nine judges d. a panel of twelve judges

24 10. Which of the following is NOT a type of case heard by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit? a. an appeal from the Trade Court b. an appeal from the Court of Veterans Appeals c. an appeal from the Court of Military Appeals d. an appeal from the Merits Systems Protection Board

25 Ch. 18 Section 3 questions judicial review: power to decide if an act is unconstitutional In the United States, the court of last resort in questions of federal law is the Supreme Court. The first case in which the court used its power of judicial review was Marbury v. Madison.

26 More ch. 18 section 3 questions…
4. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in cases involving a state or those affecting ambassadors. 5. A case is accepted if at least 4 Court justices agree to place it on the docket. 6. When the Supreme Court hears a case, it receives written documents called briefs and hears oral arguments.

27 Last ch. 18 section 3 question…
7. The opening day of each Supreme Court term is the first Monday in October.

28 Section 3 quiz d A justice who agrees with the Opinion of the Court may nonetheless decide to write a ___. e If the Chief Justice agrees with the Opinion of the Court, he or she decides who will write the ____. a When the Supreme Court accepts a case for review, it issues a ______. c Justices who disagree with an Opinion of the Court may register their views by writing a ________. b If an inferior court wants guidance from the Supreme Court on a particular question of law, it may issue a ____.

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