Presentation on theme: "Cost & Carbon Saving Opportunities in the Food & Allied Industry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cost & Carbon Saving Opportunities in the Food & Allied Industry Doug MarriottBSc CEng CSci FIEE FIET FInstR MInstPet MEI FIFST FRSAChartered Engineer - Chartered ScientistDirector Doug Marriott Associates LtdTel +44(0) Mob +44(0)
2 Agenda Waste Statistics Co- Tri Polygeneration GQCHP – Good Quality CHPCommercial Considerations for use of CHPApplicationsSome Examples and Site DetailsSorption SystemsCommercial Example ~ Funding GrantsConcluding Remarks
3 Some Food Industry Statistics Major user of energy ~ 100TWh which is equivalent to 11% of energy use by business 7.9 Million tonnes Carbon p.a. Significant waste stream ~ accounting for 10% industrial & commercial waste Refrigeration is a significant polluter in terms of refrigerant leakage (Can be >25% energy CO2 equivalent in some sectors) Landfill waste costs rising annually -current cost typically £93/t overall
4 Waste Figures in the UK 19 million tonnes food waste (+/- 5%) 6.7 million tonnes household food waste4.1 m t / p.a. food manufacture3.0 m t / p.a. food service & restaurants1.6 m t / p.a. retail food3.6 m t / p.a. remainder ~ horticulture,agriculture, schools,hospitals.Source
5 Defra Backs Anaerobic Digestion Organic Materials - Manure Slurry Food waste - could be source of 2 MWhe Source UK Gov. - Jane Kennedy Farming & Environment MinisterDefra indicate the UK produces >100Mtonnes of organic waste (90 M tonnes from manure)Defra launching Task force - To Assist sectors such as Farming , Water Industry, Food Industry to produce biogasNFU target to have 1,000 on farm units by 2020 to power farms and have fertilisers as a byproduct
7 Definition of Polygeneration CHP is the simultaneous production of Heat & Power derived from a single or multiple source of fuel/energy. Polygeneration is the use of multiple energy inputs to create multiple energy outputs.
8 Why Trigeneration Embedded Power Trigeneration? Grid Power Conventional
9 Grid Supply Energy Efficiency Limitations Grid electrical efficiency use on site is limited to the power station efficiency minus distribution losses e.g. 40% - 4% = 36% (Max Available) The waste heat from the power stations have historically not been captured / used waste energy. CHP has opportunities to use this waste energy and can accordingly improve the thermal efficiency on applications compared to grid electrical supply reaching efficiencies of =>80%
10 Conventional Systems ή Power station 40-45% ή transmission = - 3% ή Power to site = %ή Loss = 63% – 58%2/3 energy is lost
11 Conventional Systems Energy Act - 80% reduction in energy use by 2050 ή Power station 40-45%ή transmission = - 3%ή Power to site = %ή Loss = 63% – 58%2/3 energy is lostEnergy Act - 80% reduction in energy use by 2050How can we achieve it !
12 The key design Good Quality CHP (GQCHP) The target energy usage should ideally have a ratio of heat/power requirements, which are as closely in phase with the ratio of heat and power delivered by the CHP plant through all the production capacities / demand. The Measure is Good Quality CHP ( My Rule of thumb) Index = 200 Electrical Efficiency Thermal Efficiency > 100 GQCHP Avoids payment of climate change levy (CCL)
13 CHP the Success Criteria Continuous and matched heat & electrical supply & demand Suitable ratio of energy demand/supply Currently Spark Gap (electrical cost / fuel cost) > 3.0 CO2 emission reduction – Tax advantages Improved security of supply Interruptible energy supply cost savings - supply security Suitable relative capital incentive – mains supply Relative maintenance costs not a significant penalty Projected life cycle costs are attractive compared to conventional.
14 Some Applications of CHP The plant electrical or part load supply plusWater/Fluid heating – Process industry, adjacentheating, space heating, food cooking/ pasteurisationSteam raising – district heating, process heatingCO2 + electricity + heat for horticultureDrying - direct – milk, process- indirect – waste sludge,- secondary processes
15 Actual Deliveries of CHP Systems by a Leading Supplier
16 Commercial Considerations for Successful CHP Applications e.g.Electricity £0.010/kWh : Gas £0.030 /kWhRule of thumb Spark Gap > 3.0Relative cost of power / fuel ~ Electricity to GasCost of electricity - gas ~ Price Gap = 7.0 p/kWCost of electricity / gas ~ Spark Gap = 3.3Electricity Connection Charge and agreementsGas Connection charge and agreementPotential to manage interruptible gas supplies
17 The Prime Movers There is a variety of available systems that can be applied as the electrical primary energySupply devices. E.g.Reciprocating EnginesMicroturbinesGas TurbinesSteam TurbinesSolarORC (Organic Rankin Cycle)Fuel Cells
18 Some fuels used in prime movers Natural Gas (including interruptible supplies, CNG)Wellhead GasesLPG (liquid and gaseous)NaphthaLandfill and Sewage GasMines Gas (Coal Bed Methane)High Hydrogen GasesCoke oven gasSynthetic Gases from biomass, coal and wastesGasified (‘wood & waste food gas’)Diesel, Kerosene & biofuelsCrude OilWaste solvents e.g. ethanol, methanol hydrocarbon based solventsPermits are potentially an issue to consider
20 An Example of a CHP application Waste Reprocessing plantWashing Plastic Food CratesUses a submersible conveyor with direct gas fired heaters (effective heating water to 700C in a tank through which the conveyor belt with the crates are transported and dried with an air knife) – replaced with a CHPHeating load 600kWh effectiveElectrical site load 400kWe +/- 150 kWeNote the balance of supply and demand !
25 Trigeneration CHCP & CHRP Reasons for use over CHP Improve Thermal Efficiency + 20% Reduce Emissions ~ Direct & Indirect Life Cycle Cost reductions Security of supply Refrigeration Simplified
26 Applications of Trigeneration CHCP A simultaneous demand for heat, cooling/refrigeration and powerFood & Food Retail IndustryManufacturing and Process IndustriesHotelsHospitalsLeisure CentersOffice and Residential BuildingsSchools and Domestic Residences
27 Trigeneration ~ Combined Heat Cooling/Refrigeration & Power
28 Sorption Refrigeration Systems • Absorption is the incorporation of a substance into another of a different state.e.g. Liquids into Solidsor Gases into LiquidsAbsorption is basically where a material takes in another substance.• Adsorption is the physical adherence or bonding of ions and molecules onto the surface of another phase( e.g. reagents adsorbed to solid catalyst surfaces).
33 Simplified Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (AARP) • Temp +5oC down to -60oC• NH3 refrigerant /H20absorbent• Flexible and rapid tempadjustment/ start up• Only one moving part(pump)• No refrigerant losses• Low Maintenance• No Triple point issues• Long Life >30 Years• Performance a function ofplant temperatures• Fuels Cost Low Zero NegativeCarbon/Cost –opportunity
34 Operation of Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (AARP) • Evap +5 – 600C• Gen heat +95 to 1800C• Various heating media- steam- hot oil• Condenser low tempe.g. + 56% -500C+43% -400C• Various cooling soln’s- industrial brines etc
35 Food Industry Applications for Trigeneration • Generally food process where CHRP is needed• Ideal consideration on new investment• Retrofit when considering time expiredplant needing / or environmental upgrade• It needs planning from conception
39 Polygeneration Dairy Complex in Govind Dairy India with Integral Block Ice Making Plant Fuel waste sugar cane husk,coal, wood, other waste fuel21 bar GSteam driven electrical turbineSteam exhaust powers AARPComplete cooling servicesIntegral ice making plant
40 Example of Relative Payback/ Cost Conventional vis CHRP
41 Chilled Food Application at 1 Tonne/hr Dairy Produce Chilling Yogurt
42 Assumptions for Comparisons Tri-gen plant producing at 80kWeProcess heating Hx2 = 71 kWRegenerative Hx1 = 45 kWSpiral cooling duty = 55 kWr6000 hrs p.a. production plan
43 Economic Comparison of Conventional ~ Tri-generation Conventional PlantTri-generation PlantCapital cost£ 35k(Refrigeration plant + heating)£110k(Based on MGT)Electrical requirement52.5 kWe (Imported Main Grid)25 kWe (to drive the fans, lights etc). (From the 80 kWe CHP plant)Exported electricity0 kWe55 kWeGas consumption88.75 kWf285.7 kWfRunning cost p.a.£ 38,513£ 42,855Equivalent exported energy cost p.a.£26,400Net running cost p.a.£ 16,455Relative maintenancesimilar for both installationsCapital cost difference+ £ 75,000Net running cost difference-£ 22,058Pay back on the difference3.4 Years
44 Comparison Between Conventional and Tri-generation System Conventional SystemOverall Efficiency: 51 %Running Cost: £800 p.w.CO2 Emissions:12.6 t/dayTri-generation SystemOverall Efficiency 73 % (COP=0.35)Running Cost: £440 p.wCO2 Emissions: 5.3 t/dayNote: Efficiency and environmental performance of tri-generation system will increase significantly when low temperature absorption refrigeration systems with COP (Coefficient of Performance) close to 1.0 are achieved.Doug Marriott Associates Saving Business Energy
45 AcknowledgementsWe acknowledge with thanks the Co-Funding Provided by Defraunder the Advanced Food Manufacturing Food Link Programme.The project is directed by Prof Savvas Tassou Brunel University.The Consortium in the AFM project in addition to the above is:Tesco, Somerfield - Co-op, A&N Shilliday & Co Ltd, CambridgeRefrigeration Technology, Bond Industries Ltd, BockKaltenmaschinen GmbH, ACDP, Apex Air Conditioning Ltd, CSA,Bowman Power Group Ltd, Danfoss Ltd, George Barker& Co (Leeds Ltd) - part of the Elfi Group, Cogenco Ltd &Doug Marriott Associates Ltd
46 Some Grants and Funding & Options Option 1 Community & Charitable Grants <£30 KOption 2 ECA 100% first year Energy Saving /Low Carbon/Water Conservation● Option 3 Shell Springboard < £40 k● Option 4 Defra - Rural Enterprise Scheme● Option 5 Collaborative Research TSB● Option 6 Low Carbon Building Programme● Option 7 Renewable Heat IncentiveAlternative● Option 8 Waste heat generation of Electricity % recovery
47 Other References and Web Access http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewables/business-investment/funding/r-and-d/page19363.html http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/EnergyDoug’s Em Tel +44(0) Mob +44(0)