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Rankine Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Rankine Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rankine Cycle

2 Turbine control



5 The principle features of the TCS
Speed Control. Inlet/Admission Pressure Controller. Load Control. Turbine Stress Influence. Frequency Influence. Valve Lift Control.

6 Combination governing.
1-Speed Control Steam turbine governing Throttle governing. Nozzle governing. By pass governing. Combination governing. Emergency governing.

7 Throttle governing

8 Nozzle governing

9 By pass governing

10 Combination governing

11 Emergency governing When the speed of shaft increases beyond 110%.
Balancing of the turbine is disturbed. Failure of the lubrication system. Vacuum in the condenser is quite less or supply of coolant to the condenser is inadequate.

12 2-Inlet Pressure Controller

13 3- Load Control

14 4-Frequency Influence.

15 7-Valve Lift Control.

16 Condenser

17 Condensation Process

18 Types Of Condensation Film-wise condensation: condensed liquid wets the surface and forms a film covering the entire surface. Drop-wise condensation: surface is not totally wetted by the saturated vapor, and the condensate forms liquid droplets that fall. from the surface. Compared to film-wise condensation, drop-wise condensation has a greater. surface heat-transfer coefficient as it has a greater area exposed to the. saturation vapor.

19 Stages in Condensation
De-superheating of the hot gas. Condensing of the gas to liquid state and release of the latent heat. Sub-cooling of the liquid refrigerant.

20 Types of Condensers Water-cooled condensers. Double-tube condenser.
Shell-and-tube condenser. Air-cooled condensers. Evaporative condensers.

21 Double-tube Condenser

22 Shell-and-tube Condenser

23 Air-cooled Condenser

24 Evaporative Condenser

25 Condenser Coils

26 Condenser Cleaning Program
Cleaning the condenser coils will ensure: maximum efficiency. help prolong the life of the unit. protect your Pumps from premature failure. maximize your overall investment.

27 Steps Of Cleaning First, and most importantly, turn off the power to the unit. Remove any visible grass. Brush in the same direction as the slots between the fins . You can do a better job if you remove the guard grill, which protects the coil. Wear a dust mask to avoid breathing the dust. Then put on a pair of rubber gloves and spray biodegradable outdoor coil cleaner into the coil. . Wait five or ten minutes and flush the coil with a gentle water spray.  Use a gentle spray because a strong spray could bend the aluminum fins. That’s it!  Simply restore the power to your AC unit and you’ll have a much smoother running air conditioner.


29 How to increase cycle efficiency?!

30 Preheating feedwater before entering the boiler.
Feedwater heater Preheating feedwater before entering the boiler.

31 How feedwater heater works?!
We use a stream of the steam to heat the feedwater instead of using fuel. The extracted steam comes from the turbine. We extract steam at specific conditions and pressure to gain good output work from turbine.

32 Main types of feedwater heaters
Open feedwater heater Closed feedwater heater

33 Open feedwater heater

34 Open feedwater heater Advantages Disadvantages Simple. Inexpensive.
High rate ofheat transfer. We need pump for each feedwater heater.

35 Why we need a pump for each feedwater heater ?!

36 Closed feedwater heater

37 Closed feedwater heater
Advantages Disadvantages We don’t need a pump for each feedwater heater because of different pressure. More complex. More expensive. Less heat transfer.

38 Haw we can increase the rate of heat transfer in closed FWH ?!

39 Two path feedwater heater


41 Boiler

42 What is Boiler ?!

43 Types Of Boilers By Method of steam generation : Fire tube boiler.
Water tube boiler.


45 Shell Boilers Lancashire boiler. Economic boiler (two-pass, dry back).
Economic boiler (three-pass, wet back). Packaged boiler. Reverse flame / thimble boiler.

46 Lancashire boiler Highly efficient.
Less used nowadays due to high expenses. Use economizer at the back to increase efficiency.

47 Economic boiler (two-pass, dry back)
about half the size of an equivalent Lancashire boiler. higher thermal efficiency.

48 Economic boiler (three-pass, wet back)
thinner metal tubes were introduced. the heat transfer rates to be improved.  the boilers themselves to become more compact.

49 Packaged boiler Size is as small as possible … (save material).
 less heat is lost to the environment. Minimize the amount of floor space needed.

50 Reverse flame / thimble boiler


52 Combustor

53 Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Boiler
Compact boiler design , Fuel flexibility , Higher combustion efficiency. Uses solid particles with aid of high velocity (turbulent) air or gas. Superheated air stream with solid particles forms fluidized solution.

54 Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Boiler
Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) Boiler Uses at atmospheric pressure. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Boiler Used as a pressurized pressure vessel with aid of compressor to compress inlet air and hence high temp and better efficiency. Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers (CFBC).

55 The Inside Story Basic Control. Feed Water Control.
Pressure Application. Increased Demand.

56 The Basic Control

57 Feed Water Control Effect of : Feeding pump on Feeding pump off
Effect of feeding water temp On/off or dripping On water surface ?

58 Pump On. High temp FW. Pump Off. Low temp FW.

59 Pressure Application Low Pressure vs. High Pressure. Surface level.
Bubble. Turbulence. Stability. Steam take off ? (Steam Quality).

60 So , If low pressure steam is required ??

61 Increasing the demand have the same effect as the pressure relief !
Increased Demand Increasing the demand have the same effect as the pressure relief !

62 Increased Demand Does Water Added ???

63 Increased Demand Pressure drop cause larger bubbles.
Higher water level. Steam flashing. Poor quality. Lower mass output .. Even flow increased ?!

64 Power Planet Modification



67 Deaerator An external device used to remove gases from water before feeding it to the boiler. Water with dissolved oxygen more corrosive. Co2 formation make it more acidic and hence more corrosion.




71 Simple Schematic Diagram of Used Boiler !!


73 References :

74 Steam Trap

75 What is it ?

76 How it works ?


78 Major types Mechanical traps. Thermodynamic (TD) traps.
Thermostatic Steam Traps.

79 Mechanical traps Ex: Ball float steam trap.

80 Mechanical traps Ex: Inverted bucket steam trap.

81 Thermodynamic (TD) traps
Ex: Traditional thermodynamic steam trap

82 Thermostatic Steam Traps
Ex: Liquid expansion steam trap.

83 Nuclear Energy

84 Construction of nuclear reaction

85 How does a nuclear reaction work?
Works as a boiler – source of heat. Neutrons are travelling at high speed. Slowed down by a MODERATOR. Great amount of heat are generated. COOLANT helps to make steam.

86 Types of nuclear reactors
1-Boling water reactor (BWR).

87 2-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

88 3-pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR)
Candu is an example.

89 4-Fast Breeder Reactor(FBR)
Note:- Special Coolant >> “Liquid Sodium”

90 5-High Temp. Gas Reactor (HTGR) .
- Moderator >> Graphite - Coolant >> Helium

91 Reactor types in use world wide

92 Safe EXECUTION for nuclear wastes
1-open fuel circle. 2-closed fuel circle.

93 Disasters bleed humanity




97 Thank You  Abd el rhman Bedir. Abd el rhman Ashour. Amir lebda.
Ahmed ezzat. Ahmed hamdy. Ahmed el sayed. Amer mounir. Khaled ahmed. Shimaa shehab.

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