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EPMA Annual Conference June 25, 2012 Colby College.

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Presentation on theme: "EPMA Annual Conference June 25, 2012 Colby College."— Presentation transcript:

1 EPMA Annual Conference June 25, 2012 Colby College

2 1. What is Biomass? a. Fuels b. Boilers c. Fuel storage and handling 2. Why use Biomass? 3. Where in Maine are biomass systems located? a. Schools b. Others c. Total units 4. What have we learned and what should we do different another time a. What have we learned about Boiler sizing? b. What have we learned about biomass fuel? c. What have we learned about fuel storage and delivery? d. What have we learned about emissions and efficiency? e. What have we learned about design? f. What financial considerations are there? g. What should one do before considering installing a biomass boiler? June 25, 20122

3 Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of biomass for energy, this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material. Components of a biomass system include: Fuels Softwood chips Hardwood chips Hogged wood Bark Sawdust Debris Wood pellets Grass pellets and pucks Grass loose Corn Farm animal waste Food waste Industrial waste June 25, 20123

4 Boilers Hot water Steam Gasifiers Fire tube, water tube Moving grate, stationary bed, burn pot Duel fuel June 25, 20124

5 Fuel Storage and handling Bunkers –on grade, below grade- containers Silos – vertical, horizontal Storage rooms – converted from something else, like coal bins June 25, 20125

6 Biomass is a renewable, low carbon fuel that is already widely available throughout Maine. Its production and use also brings additional environmental and social benefits. Correctly managed, biomass is a sustainable fuel that can deliver a significant reduction in net carbon emissions when compared with fossil fuels. Keeps money in the Maine economy. 18 million acres, more now than 50 years ago, sufficient infrastructure. Looking toward short growth crops, willow. June 25, 20126

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10 10 First commercial sized biomass (other than residential units) were paper companies 1.East Millinocket1954 2.Lincoln P & P1957 3.Baileyville1966 4.Westbrook1982 5.Hinckley1990 *Co-fired with other fuels such as liquor, coal, oil

11 Biomass electric exploded on to the scene in the 1980s 1.One in 1986 2.Four in 1987 3.One in 1988 4.Two in 1989 *Biomass only, no co-fire 5.One in 1992 6.One in 1993 7.Ten total, only about 6 running now due to lowering cost of imported electric June 25, 201211

12 Also in the 1980s, due to the oil embargo of 1973, some schools installed Dumont boilers developed by Professor Richard Hill of the U of M. No good records but I know of 4 or 5 of this installed (MeDOE paid for them). None being used and most removed. Wood stick, manually loaded vertically, burned down, induced draft, 3,000 gal thermal storage. June 25, 201212

13 Not much happened until Leavitt High School installed a 5 MMBTU/h unit in 1999 Installations began picking up from there. June 25, 201213

14 The next big effort came as a result of the oil price increase in 2008. Schools started looking for ways to reduce heating costs but also to reduce impact of sudden increases such as the crude oil price spike in 2008 at $149/barrel. The real big push came as the result of an effort by Gov. Baldacci to address ways to help Maine Schools and families with heating costs. The Governors wood to energy task force performed its work, and as a result The Maine Dept. of Conservation began meetings the result of which was an application to the US Forest Service for funding as part of the ARRA stimulus program. June 25, 201214

15 Maine was awarded $11.4M in Federal funds which was matched by $20M other funds totaling $31.6M, really has been the shot in the arm that has increased the awareness and growth of biomass. Thru an application process, 105 applications were submitted over 3 rounds, and 22 ultimately were funded. Some are just coming online and some are being constructed as we speak June 25, 201215

16 MeDOE funded RSU 52Turner HS1998800 tons chips RSU 3Thorndike K-122009800 tons chips SAD 46Dexter Pk-82010600 tons chips SAD 9Mallet ES 2010350 tons pellets * Falmouth ES & HS20102200 tons chips AOS 93Jefferson ES2011200 tons chips RSU 1Woolwich ES2011200 tons chips RSU 12Chelsea ES2011200 tons chips SAD 9 Mt. Blue HS/VOC20112200 tons chips * June 25, 201216

17 Other funding sources CoAtlanticBar Harbor2008250 tons pellets SAD 9 New Sharon ES2009125 tons pellets SAD 9 Wilton ES2009125 tons pellets RSU 61Naples2009400 tons pellets RSU 58Mt Abram HS2009400 tons pellets RSU 39Caribou HS/VOC20101000 tons chips RSU 58Kingfield ES2010250 tons pellets RSU 58Stratton ES2010250 tons pellets ColbyWaterville201013000 tons chips June 25, 201217

18 There are now at least 35 schools or educational facilities using wood fiber to heat their facilities! June 25, 201218

19 Other facilities Town Garage Gardiner 2011(wood pellet) VA CenterTogus201222000 tons chips* Commercial Jackson Lab Bar Harbor2011(wood pellet) Mt Abram Ski Area 2012(wood pellet) Moose River Lumber Co (chips, sawdust, shavings) Lumber and other misc. about 4 units across the state June 25, 201219

20 Total Chip consumption29,485 tons Total Pellet consumption5,910 tons Total oil displaced gals2.4M gallons Total wood fiber cost$2.9M Total $ saved$5.7M Total dollars added to or kept in Maine economy $7.8M 32 new jobs created June 25, 201220

21 Now have 4 pellet mgrs. And 1 very large one on the boards, in Maine At least 3 pellet mgrs. serving Maine At least 2 wood chip brokers and a few individual suppliers of chips June 25, 201221

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27 Brands of boilers in Maine *(ARRA and DOE only) Viessmann12 Messersmith11 Okofen 5* (installations only total units is higher) Chiptec 3 Schmid 2 Skanden 2 Hamont 2 Hurst 1 AFS 1 Reka 1 Biomax 1 Other 2 Total 43 1998 only 1, today 43 There are another 20 or so big users like paper and electric June 25, 201227

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29 Many we have seen are grossly oversized. Boiler size can impact efficiency, emissions, and fuel consumption. Reduce stand by losses by sizing smaller, short cycling. Must determine what load curve is best to satisfy – fixed demand, peak load, partial load Rule of thumb for biomass 60-70% of fixed demand, no more than 85% of fixed Use current fossil fuel consumption to create load curve, do not use current fossil fuel boiler size as a means of sizing wood boilers June 25, 201229

30 Most installs (chip) are burning higher quality fuel than necessary Paying too much Lower quality, lower cost fuel can be as efficient as high quality, high cost fuel High quality fuel does not always save money Moisture content effects consumption a. 55% -35% will reduce yearly consumption by 20- 25% Fuel delivery systems not designed for over/under sized chips (no screening) Pellet quality does vary, get significant samples and test. Save results. June 25, 201230

31 Capacity needs to be 7 days at highest firing rate, plus 1 full truckload i. Example: 3 MMBTH/h, 50% MC, 400 lbs/hr, 5 tons/day, 35 tons/week, 4000 CF ii. Plus next truck 28-32 tons or 2800-3400 CF iii. Minimum 6-7000 CF, 12x30x16 Large trucks need access to bunker or silo, with adequate turning space, ability to deliver during school operating hours June 25, 201231

32 Access needs to consider height of trailer bumper, <18 inches Smaller capacity bunkers, silos need daily monitoring 2 overhead door openings, 12 FT wide x 14FT tall, 16 FT preferred Allow trailer bed to back into bunker, not face of outside wall Bunkers need visual inspection window or cameras to determine remaining fuel June 25, 201232

33 Bunker sizes.pdf Wood Chip Trailer.jpg Chips coming out of trailer.bmp Trailer inside bunker.jpg Drive on walking floor.jpg Trailer should fit into door opening.bmp June 25, 201233

34 Silos follow same logic for sizing i. Example: 3 MMBTH/h, 10% MC, 250 lbs/hr, 3 tons/day, 21 tons/week, 840 CF ii. Plus next truck 20-28 tons or 800-1100 CF iii. Minimum 1600-2000 CF, 12 FT diameter x 35 FT tall silo Silos need level indicators to monitor volume Silos need view window to see fill progress, over filling June 25, 201234

35 Combustion efficiency, 80% minimum, 85% should be norm Thermal transfer, minimum 3 pass heat exchanger Radiant efficiency, well insulated, room should be cool Overall net efficiency, combination of the above, ask for 3 rd party evaluation Fuel quality effects emissions, especially particulate Overall efficiency effects fuel consumption rate June 25, 201235

36 Turn down ratios, more is not better but some is required i. Idle mode is not acceptable Coordination between wood boiler and hydronics is critical for efficiency i. DDC controls very helpful, outside air, time of day, load prediction ii. Must have 3 way valve iii. Thermal storage will be more efficient, better control, less emissions Look at number of motors required throughout the system i. Ive seen 20-30 HP of connected load when 6-10 HP could have done same functions ii. Look for sensors that allow motors to only run when needed June 25, 201236

37 Most engineering and/or architectural firms lack expertise in biomass design Boiler room space needs to be larger than for fossil fuel fired boilers Need room for fuel storage Delivery access Reduce distance from fuel storage to burner ESP or bag houses should not be needed Industrial quality equipment, not agricultural like flex augers of plastic Maintenance of equipment i. Refractory cast vs. brick ii. Access to motors, sensors, clean outs June 25, 201237

38 Total cost of ownership i. Life cycle costing, life over time, is it re- buildable ii. Impact of personnel cost to operate less automated systems iii. Impact of electrical bill of total added electrical motor load iv. Fuel type v. Operating efficiencies June 25, 201238

39 Capital costs vs. amount saved (payback) i. Must get over (traditional) short term payback periods ii. What is the payback on current system How will you finance i. Traditional borrowing ii. Energy performance contract iii. Power purchase (lease) iv. Grants, QZAB, other v. Who assumes risk of performance June 25, 201239

40 Do you intend to use the building for another 20-30 years Will the existing HVAC system adapt to biomass Fuel type and distance to multiple suppliers Do you have the personal to operate and maintain June 25, 201240

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