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DOE Perspective on Advanced Energy Materials

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Presentation on theme: "DOE Perspective on Advanced Energy Materials"— Presentation transcript:

1 DOE Perspective on Advanced Energy Materials
Robert Romanosky, Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory January 6, 2009

2 Materials Program Goals
Development of a technology base in the synthesis, processing, life-cycle analysis, and performance characterization of advanced materials. Development of new materials that have the potential to improve the performance and/or reduce the cost of existing power and non-power technologies. Development of materials for new systems and capabilities. NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

3 Fossil Energy Key Material Research Areas
USC Boilers/Turbines Gasifier Advanced Turbines Sensors Oxy-Firing Fuel Cells NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

4 Ultra-Clean Energy Plant
Systems Integration System modeling Virtual Simulation Instrumentation Sensors & Controls Advanced Materials UltraSuperCritical Materials Advanced Alloys Gasification & Combustion Seals & Electrodes for Fuel Cells Thermal Barrier Coating for Turbines Improved Refractories for Gasifiers ODS Coatings Gas Stream Cleanup Devices NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

5 Breakthrough Concepts Supercritical Materials
Program Roadmap Policy Goal Technologies Gasification Combustion Seques- tration Environ- mental Fuel Cells Turbines & Engines Coal Technology Platforms Heat Exchangers Air/Gas Heaters Gas Separation Particulate Control Vessel Liners Component Technology Turbine Blades/ Rotors/Pipes Castings Membranes Hot-Gas Filters Refractory Castables/ Bricks Adsorbents Materials Technology Coatings/ Protection Materials New Alloys Breakthrough Concepts Ultra Supercritical Materials Functional Materials R&D Elements Joining Design Modeling Mechanical Properties Charac- terization Synthesis & Processing/ Fabrication Corrosion/ Erosion Studies NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

6 A Dash of Wolfram, A Pinch of Nickel
Creation of New Materials A Dash of Wolfram, A Pinch of Nickel NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

7 Advanced Research Materials Program HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS
New Alloys - To increase the temperature capability of alloys for use in specific components required for advanced power plants by understanding the relationships among composition, microstructure, and properties. Functional Materials - To understand the special requirements of materials intended to function in specific conditions such as those encountered in hot gas filtration, gas separation, and fuel cell systems. Breakthrough Materials - To explore routes for the development of materials with temperature/strength capabilities beyond those currently available. Coatings & Protection of Materials - To develop the design, application, and performance criteria for coatings intended to protect materials from the high-temperature corrosive environments encountered in advanced fossil energy plants. Ultra Supercritical Materials – To evaluate and develop materials technologies that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants to operate at steam conditions of up to 760°C (1400°F) and 5,000 psi NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

8 Coatings Clusters Advanced Combustion/Gasification Conditions
Extended alloy lifetimes through improved coating performance and composition optimization Microstructure and properties of HVOF-sprayed Ni-50Cr coatings High-temperature corrosion resistance of candidate FeAlCr coatings in low-NOx environments Aluminide coatings for power generation applications Development Metallic Coatings for Structural Alloys Includes rig testing Includes field testing Evaluation Coatings Clusters Development YSZ thermal barrier coatings by MOCVD Modeling of CVD processing Development of non-destructive evaluation methods for ceramic coatings Materials issues for syngas turbines Ceramic/ Composite Coatings Evaluation Includes field testing Gasifier Refractory Linings Gas Turbine Components

9 New Alloy Clusters Advanced Steam Conditions
Advanced pressure-boundary materials High creep-strength alloys (Special Metals Effects of off-normal metallurgical conditions on performance of advanced ferritic steels Steam turbine materials and corrosion Materials for USC steam turbines (consortium) Development Fireside and steamside corrosion of alloys for USC plants USC materials plant trials (B&W) Improved metallic recuperator materials (Solar Turbines CRADA) USC steam tubing consortium Evaluation High-temperature ‘Conventional’ Wrought Alloys New Alloy Clusters Development Enabling the practical application of ODS-ferritic steels Optimization of ODS-Fe3Al and MA956 alloy heat exchanger tubes Control of defects and microstructure in ODS alloys Cross-rolling/flow-forming of ODS alloy HX tubes Evaluation In-plant corrosion probe tests of Corrosion and joining of ODS FeCrAl alloys for very high -temperature heat exchangers MA956 heat exchanger tubes ODS Alloys Advanced Heat Exchangers/ Engines

10 Functional Materials Clusters
Gas Filtration/Separation/ Clean-up Development of inorganic membranes for hydrogen separation Activated carbon composites for air separation Metal membranes for hydrogen separation Development Processing Gas sensors for fossil energy applications Brazing technology for gas separation membranes: advances in air brazing Ceramic Membranes/ Structures Functional Materials Clusters Development Low-chrome/chrome-free refractories for slagging gasifiers Protection systems: corrosion-resistant coatings Refractories Evaluation field testing Gasifier Refractory Linings

11 Breakthrough Concepts
Concept Development ORNL-2D: Multiphase HT Alloys: Exploration of Laves-strengthened steels ORNL-4A: Novel structures through controlled oxidation ORNL-4C: Concepts for smart, protective high-temperature coatings AMES-2: Optimizing processing of Mo-Si-B intermetallics through thermodynamic assessment of Mo-Si-B and related systems UT-2A: Effects of W on the microstructures of TiAl-based intermetallics WVU-2: Influence of impurities on ductility of Cr-based alloys and in-situ mechanical property measurement ORNL-2I: Development of ultra-high temperature molybdenum borosilicides-See below Multiphase HT Alloys: Exploration of Laves-strengthened steels Novel structures through controlled oxidation Concepts for smart, protective high-temperature coatings Optimizing processing of Mo-Si-B intermetallics through thermodynamic assessment of Mo-Si-B and related systems Effects of W on the microstructures of TiAl-based intermetallics Influence of impurities on ductility of Cr-based alloys and in-situ mechanical property measurement Development of ultra-high temperature molybdenum borosilicides-See below Enabling Technologies AMES-3: New Processing Developments in Metallic Powders for Fossil Energy Applications REMAXCO-5: Pilot facility for the production of New Processing Developments in Metallic Powders for Fossil Energy Applications Pilot facility for the production of silicon carbide fibrils Strength/Env Resistance at T > Current Alloys Breakthrough Concepts Increased HT capability for ‘Conventional’ Wrought Alloys Concept Development ORNL-2I: Strengthening phases with increased stability Strengthening phases with increased stability Enabling Technologies Interaction with ORNL-2C Interaction with ORNL Advanced Combustion/Gasification Conditions

12 Materials Evaluation for Biomass and Black Liquor Gasifiers
Gasification of black liquor and biomass involves high-pressure, high-temperature, and sometimes caustic conditions. Materials used in gasifier equipment must be robust and able to withstand the chemical and thermal conditions as well as the cycling aspects of gasifier operation Critical materials issues such as fatigue, corrosion, stability, and longevity of materials will be the primary focus of research Corrosion and corrosion fatigue studies will be conducted with the intent of identifying possible degradation mechanisms for metallic and refractory materials. NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

13 Hydrogen Membranes Hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, biomass, and biomass derivatives through the use of gasification, pyrolysis, reforming and shift technologies. The use of membranes holds the promise of reducing cost by combining the separation and purification with the shift reaction in a reactive separation operation. Development is needed to improve hydrogen membrane separation and purification technology for use in the production of hydrogen The focus of the research should be on low cost, high flux rate, durable membranes systems that can be integrated with the shift reaction. Membranes of interest include ceramic ionic transport membranes, micro-porous membranes, and palladium based membranes. NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

14 UltraSupercritical Boilers and Turbines
Current technology for USC Boilers Typical subcritical = 540 °C Typical supercritical = 593 °C Most advanced supercritical = ~610 °C USC Plant efficiency is improved to 45 to 47% HHV Ultrasupercritical (USC) DOE goal for higher efficiency and much lower emissions, materials capable of: 760 °C (1400 °F) 5,000 psi Oxygen firing Meeting these targets requires: The use of new materials Novel uses of existing materials NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

15 Technical Barriers Long-term degradation of materials ( ,000 hours) are not well understood or characterized for this alloy class Combination of creep strength, weldability (necessary component for boiler fabrication), oxidation, and corrosion resistance Effects of heat-treatment, fabrication variables, welding is critical Need new welding processes, fabrication processes, etc. Ability to produce material is also an issue Microhardness map of Thick Section USC weld showing “soft” weld metal – long-term testing is needed to understand the implication of this type of weld on material performance NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

16 What and Why Oxy-fuel Combustion
Energy production (in particular, electricity) is expected to increase due to population increase and per capita increase in energy consumption Oxy-fuel combustion is one option for providing increased capacity to satisfy the future energy consumption demand Can be used for retrofitting or new plants Global climate change - one of the sources for CO2 increase in the atmosphere is exhaust from fossil fuel combustion plants Oxy-fuel combustion readily supports the capture and sequestration of CO2 from power plants NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

17 Technological Barriers – Materials Needs
Better understanding of material performance in oxyfuel environments Evaluate ash assisted hot-corrosion of boiler alloys Develop computational models to predict fireside corrosion will aid in the development of all advanced combustion systems Evaluate other plant components e.g., coal pulverizers (wear-corrosion interactions) Future Capability: Combine Oxyfuel with USC. Potential cleaner coal combustion technology Oxyfuel: ease of flue gas clean-up and CO2 sequestration USC: maximize efficiency Need cost effective advanced alloys that can withstand the oxyfuel/USC environment higher temperatures and higher pressures than current systems NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

18 Advanced Sensor Materials
Harsh Environmental Conditions Sensor Material Development Rugged Sensor Designs Sensor Signal Wire 1” NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

19 Driver for New Sensing Technology
Advanced Power Generation: Harsh sensing conditions throughout plant Monitoring needed with advanced instrumentation and sensor technology. Existing instrumentation and sensing technology are inadequate Coal Gasifiers and Combustions Turbines: have the most extreme conditions Gasifier temperatures may extend to 1600 °C and pressures above 800 psi. Slagging coal gasifiers are highly reducing, highly erosive and corrosive. Combustion turbines have a highly oxidizing combustion atmosphere. Targeting development of critical on line measurements Sensor materials and designs are aimed at up to 1600 °C for temperature measurement and near 500 °C for micro gas sensors. Goal is to enable the coordinated control of advanced power plants followed by improvement of a system’s reliability and availability and on line optimization of plant performance. NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

20 Materials for Sensing in Harsh Environments (Optical and Micro Sensors)
Sapphire Alumina Silicon Carbide Doped Silicon Carbide Nitride Yttria stabilized zirconia Fused/doped silica for certain conditions Interest in Active / doped coatings 3D porous or “mesh” nano-derived ceramics / metal oxides NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

21 Turbines Technical Barriers Environmental Conditions Research Underway

22 Gas Phase Conditions for Advanced Turbines
IGCC Based Syngas and H2 Fueled Turbines  Parameter ST 2010 HT 2015 Combustor exhaust temp 2700 °F Turbine inlet temp 2500 °F 2600 °F Turbine exhaust temp 1100 °F Turbine inlet pressure 250 psig 300 psig Combustor exhaust composition CO2 (9.27), H2O (8.5), N2 (72.8), Ar (0.8), O2(8.6) CO2 (1.4), H2O (17.3), N2 (72.2), Ar (0.9), O2(8.2) IGCC Oxy-Fuel Turbine Cycle  Turbine Parameters OFT 2010 OFT 2015 Intermediate Pressure Turbine inlet 1150 °F 3200 °F Pressure 450 psig 625 psig High Pressure - 1400 °F 1500 psig Working Fluid Composition (%) H2O (82), CO2 (17), O2 (0.1), N2 (1.1), Ar (1) H2O (75-90), CO2 (25-10), balance (17) O2, N2, Ar NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

23 Turbine Materials Technical Barriers
Mechanical / chemical stability of bond coating interface Stresses developed as a result of CTE mismatch Change in thermal conductivity across the thickness of the ceramic as a result of service exposure Cleanup techniques with various levels of sulfur removal: MDEA: 20 – 30 (+) ppm Selexol: 2 – 11 ppm Rectisol: 0.01 – 6 ppm CO2 capture w/ deeper sulfur removal w/ less sulfur problems Research needed on: new materials & deposition procedures (techniques) new TBC structures with corrosion resistance environmental barrier coating (EBC) ceramic matrix composite (CMC) These number will tend towards the lower numbers NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

24 What R&D is underway to address these issues?
TBC compositions for corrosion resistance with no increase in thermal conductivity and good CTE match. TBC failure mechanisms with alternate fuels especially under high heat flux (HHF) conditions. Understanding deposition (condensation) kinetics for critical vapor species on high temperature surfaces – water vapor activated recession of TBC materials Effect of cooling strategy on TBC thermal gradient and degradation modes Deposition, erosion, or corrosion (D-E-C) due to contaminants (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na K, sulfate ions, As, P, Se etc.) when firing syngas Simulated lab tests NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

25 Fuel Cells Technical Barriers Environmental Conditions
Research Underway NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

26 Fuel Cell Materials Material improvements process
Faster kinetics for oxygen reduction to lower the irreversible losses for electrochemical charge transfer. Stable surface chemistries are sought with active sites for dissociative adsorption of oxygen Technical barriers Cathode performance correlated with oxide surface chemistry in high partial pressures of oxygen Cathode surface boundary is affected by cation dopant distributions Local surface chemistry establishes adsorption sites with kinetic barriers to charge and mass transport Dopants and defect segregation modify surface chemistry Modified atomic arrangements can provide stable and fast reaction sites with improved electrochemical performance NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

27 Fuel Cell Materials R&D Underway
Work to fully understand the surface chemistry of established cathode oxides Epitaxial growth through pulsed laser deposition to prepare thin film model surfaces Identify key correlations between surface structure, chemistry, and performance parameters Theoretical modeling to interpret the underlying chemistry and guide modifications to the cathode surfaces. Technology Future Improve Cathode performance to extend functional operating temperature from the current lower range of 750 °C down to 650 °C. Technology Benefit Reduce SOFC cost through more efficient operational performance. Increase efficiency in advanced power generation systems NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

28 What Does the Future Look Like?
The USA and the world will face great energy challenges with ever increasing environmental constraints Advanced fossil energy power systems will be needed The Advanced Research Materials Program is poised to have even greater impacts on future energy systems Novel materials for gas separation Fuel cell materials Next generation stainless steels with higher strength and better oxidation resistance Advanced coatings Prescriptive materials design and lifetime prediction for extreme environments NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009

29 Fossil Energy Key Material Research Areas
USC Boilers/Turbines Gasifier Advanced Turbines Sensors Oxy-Firing Fuel Cells NETL_WVU_MATERIALS_MEETING_1/6/2009


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