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Safer More Efficient Healthier

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Presentation on theme: "Safer More Efficient Healthier"— Presentation transcript:

1 Safer More Efficient Healthier
Burn it Smart! Safer More Efficient Healthier This is the welcome slide that reflects the three key themes that will be developed during the workshop.

2 Objectives of the Workshop
To help you: burn wood SAFELY burn wood more EFFICIENTLY keep your family and community HEALTHY Read this slide

3 Agenda Stoves, Fireplaces and Central Heaters
The new clean burn technologies The Chimney Safe Wood Heat Systems Break Wood Smoke and Your Health Maintaining Your Wood Heating System Firewood How to Burn Without Smoke Please hold questions until we get to the section you are interested in. Your question might be answered in the presentation. At the break, ask your questions of those present who are WETT certified (ask them to stand and identify themselves)

4 What is a renewable energy resource?
Hydro-electric Solar power Wind power Biomass energy (wood) A renewable energy resource is one that will never run out, provided it is used wisely. The main renewable energy resources in Canada are hydro-electric, solar and wind power and biomass energy. Wood is a biomass energy resource.

5 Right circle: Trees absorb CO2 when they grow and release it when they die and decompose
About half the weight of wood is carbon Left circle: When we burn wood for heat, the CO2 is returned to the atmosphere Heating with wood taps into nature’s carbon cycle Graphic courtesy ICC/RSF

6 The Appliance: Stove Fireplace or Central Heater
Title slide to introduce the discussion of appliances.

7 Wood Stoves Conventional stoves are usually older and have no features to reduce smoke Advanced technology EPA certified wood stoves burn cleanly and efficiently Read this slide. You may wish to probe to find out how many people use advanced versus conventional stoves. This is one way to confirm that people understand what is meant by the terms. It is also a way to inform users of conventional equipment that some of their neighbours now used advanced equipment.

8 Conventional Wood Stoves
Left to right: Pot belly Cast box stove Circulating stove Welded steel “airtight” Wood cook stove None of these stoves can burn wood cleanly and efficiently. Emissions are from 40 to 60 grams of smoke per hour of use. Smoke can be minimized by using good fuel and burning practices

9 Advanced Wood Stoves Left to right: Cast iron stove
Steel enamelled stove Steel painted stove More about advanced stoves later.

10 Pellet stoves A clean burning option
Pellets are made from sawdust that is ground, dried and compressed These stoves can operate up to 24 hours unattended Read this slide. Probe to see if anyone present heats with a pellet stove. If appropriate, ask them to share their experience.

11 Conventional Fireplaces
Conventional masonry and conventional factory-built fireplaces are not efficient and are not suitable for home heating They are also a source of air pollution Left - conventional masonry fireplace Right - conventional factory-built fireplace Conventional fireplaces are useful only for fire viewing Conventional fireplaces are not even suitable for emergency heating because they are not designed for continuous use and such use could be hazardous.

12 Fireplace Inserts A fireplace insert can transform a conventional fireplace into an efficient heating system. A full chimney liner is mandatory

13 High efficiency fireplaces
Advanced technology fireplaces have the same combustion features as advanced wood stoves Left: an advanced fireplace Right: illustration showing the remote duct capability Some of these fireplaces can have ducts attached for heating remote rooms, and some can be used for whole-house heating.

14 Masonry heaters A masonry heater is a low smoke, high efficiency heating option In a masonry heater, the fire is burned quickly and the heat is absorbed by tons of brick mass. The heat is slowly released to the room over the following 12 to 24 hours. Continuous fires are not maintained in masonry heaters. Each fire is built “from scratch”.

15 Central Heating Most wood furnaces and boilers are not clean burning and efficient Left: forced air system Right: wood boiler piped together with oil boiler Central heating systems use hot air ducts or water pipes to distribute heat throughout the house. Ask how many people use central heating equipment This information may be useful later in dealing with firing technique.

16 Outdoor boilers Their large, simple fireboxes make clean burning difficult. The suggestions for good firewood preparation and firing technique can be used to reduce smoke from outdoor boilers.

17 Advanced Wood Burning Technology
Advanced technologies offer several advantages, including: Much higher efficiency Much less smoke pollution Greater safety because less creosote is formed Burn less wood for more heat Read this slide

18 Two types of advanced combustion:
Catalytic uses catalyst to clean up exhaust Non-catalytic advanced most common type in Canada Read this slide. Describe how they work using the next two slides.

19 Inside a catalytic wood stove
All catalytic wood stoves have a bypass damper that is opened for reloading. The damper is closed after the stove heats up, routing the exhaust through the catalyst. Smoke passes through a catalytic honeycomb that lowers smoke ignition temperature

20 Inside a ‘non-cat’ wood stove
Firebox insulation Reflects heat back to the fire, keeping it hot A large baffle at the top of the firebox Reflects heat back down towards the fire Creates a longer flame path for gas combustion to occur Preheated secondary combustion air Distributed around the top of the firebox Reacts with hot gases to create a clean burn 1. Firebox insulation 2. A large baffle 3. Preheated combustion air

21 This is what the fire in an advanced combustion wood stove looks like.
The small flames at the centre top of the picture are caused by air entering the firebox through the small holes in the secondary air system as it reacts with the hot wood smoke. THE VIDEO CLIP IS NEXT!


23 Compare old with new: Overall Efficiency 40 – 50% 60 – 80%
Note that stacking wood against a wood stove like this is extremely hazardous. Overall Efficiency 40 – 50% 60 – 80% Graphic adapted from California EPA publications

24 Save up to one-third Users find that they cut their wood use by up to 1/3 when they upgrade to an advanced technology stove. Probe for confirmation by any of those present who use advanced stoves.

25 A clean burning furnace
At least one EPA certified wood furnace is now available. If you want a central heating furnace, consider only an EPA certified model. Hopefully more advanced furnaces and boilers will be available soon.

26 A cleaner burning outdoor boiler
A new generation of outdoor boilers recently became available. If considering an OB, choose only one that is EPA certified.

27 When you shop for a wood burning appliance:
Look for one that is EPA certified. Ask your dealer to show you advanced stoves and fireplaces. In Canada, only the province of British Columbia requires wood stoves and fireplace inserts to meet emission limits. Canada is working on establishing a regulation similar to the US EPA’s.

28 The Chimney Masonry Chimney Metal Chimney
Title slide to introduce the subject of chimneys. You might ask how many people use each of the general types. Metal Chimney

29 Why outside chimneys are a big problem:
Cold air flows down them, filling the house with smoke and odours. More restriction: at least two 90° changes of direction. Creosote forms faster. The chimney parts cost more. A key slide. Ask if anyone has experienced cold backdrafts from an outside chimney.

30 Inside chimneys work better because:
An inside chimney stays warm and always produces some draft, even when no fire burns. An inside chimney can be located above the appliance for a straighter system and better performance. Read and discuss briefly

31 The ideal: straight up! Provides stronger, more stable draft
Does not cold backdraft Less creosote formation Needs less maintenance Straight systems produce high performance wood burning No smoke roll-out Fast starts More convenience See the Guide to Residential Wood Heating booklet for more details

32 Safe wood heat systems A Guide to Residential Wood Heating has an overview of wood heat safety rules. This is a title slide introducing the safety section of the workshop.

33 Codes contain reliable rules for:
Floor pads Single wall flue pipe Double wall flue pipe Appliance clearances Clearance reduction using shields Stoves don’t cause house fires - improper installation causes fires.

34 For new or changed systems:
A building permit is mandatory The permit will result in an inspection Inform your insurance company A new installation or change could change your insurance policy Check with your agent to ensure that you will be covered Review this slide

35 Dispose of ashes safely
Ashes can stay hot for days and emit carbon monoxide Put ashes in a steel bucket Store the bucket outside on concrete, not on a wooden deck or near firewood Improper storage of ashes leads to plenty of house fires

36 Think Safety Smoke Detector Fire Extinguisher Carbon Monoxide Detector
A smoke detector will detect ignition of combustibles or spillage from an active fire A CO detector will detect spillage from a coal bed as the fire dies out A fire extinguisher is indispensable if anything bad happens Carbon Monoxide Detector

37 Contact a professional!
Look for the logo. Ask retailers, installers and sweeps if they are WETT certified. Call Visit Ask those who are WETT certified to stand and identify themselves, or introduce them yourself.

38 BREAK Keep the break short and warn people in advance

39 The second half . . . Wood Smoke and Your Health
Maintaining Your Wood Heating System Firewood How to Burn Without Smoke

40 Wood smoke and your health
The spicy hint of wood smoke in the air might be pleasant . . . BUT Wood smoke is not healthy to breathe. Everyone should avoid breathing wood smoke Especially children, the elderly and those with respiratory ailments. This is the title and summary slide introducing the topic of healthier wood heating.

41 Why you should not breathe wood smoke:
Wood smoke, like all smoke, contains a number of toxic compounds Some are linked to increased cancer risk and other lung diseases Some make asthma and emphysema worse There is a clear link between breathing smoke and respiratory health Toxic gases and their health effects PM10 (inhalable particles less than 10 microns in diameter): increase in asthma, inflammation of the airway, immune system response Formaldehyde: watery eyes, nausea, chest tightness, wheezing, may trigger asthma, cancer risk Oxides of Nitrogen: shortness of breath, irritation of upper airways, lower resistance to lung infections Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): short term: eye irritation, nausea, confusion long term: cataracts, organ damage, cancer Carbon monoxide: odourless, colourless gas - reduces blood’s ability to carry oxygen Volatile organic compounds (VOCs): low levels - fatigue, increased chest pains high levels - headaches, dizziness, death can cause respiratory irritation and illness

42 How to avoid breathing wood smoke:
Make sure your wood heating system is designed right and is in good shape Burn only seasoned wood Never let the fire smoulder Avoid opening the loading door on a full fire. Learn to burn without smoke. The best design for wood heating systems is an advanced combustion appliance with a straight vertical venting system Seasoned wood ignites easily and doesn’t smoulder - smouldering fires are the biggest cause of smoke spillage into houses.

43 Consider using other heating options.
If you or someone in your family has asthma, allergies or environmental sensitivities: Consider using other heating options. Be especially careful about wood smoke inside the house. Use only wood that is free of rot, mould and fungus. Bring only a small amount of wood into the house at a time. Many people suffer allergy or asthma attacks caused by the airborne spores from the moulds and funguses that come in with the firewood. There are two helpful strategies: First, avoid firewood with rot, moulds and funguses and second, bring only a small amount of firewood into the house at a time.

44 Do Burn Don’t Burn Coated, painted or pressure treated wood
Salt water driftwood Plywood, particle board or any wood with glue on or in it Household garbage Cardboard and paper products Unseasoned wood Clean, seasoned firewood Just enough plain newspaper to get the fire started Commercial fire starters are usually ok Read this slide. Bleached, coated paper and various forms of plastic produces toxic emissions like Dioxin when burned. Burning any of the materials in the list on the left will pollute the air around your house and in your community.

45 Maintaining your wood heating system
Every wood burning system should be cleaned and inspected at least once each year. Some systems need much more service than this. The best approach is to service frequently until you are sure how much is needed.

46 Chimney cleaning Some systems form large amounts of creosote quickly
Others rarely need cleaning The only way to know is to check often A system and user that produce dense smoke from the chimney can form dangerous deposits in as little as three weeks. An advanced stove connected to a straight venting system and operated with good firewood and technique may never need its chimney swept. Shiny glazed creosote is dangerous in any amount and is a sign the system is not working properly. Soft deposits should be removed when they reach 1/8” (3 mm) in thickness. Clay tile full of creosote Brush removing creosote

47 Appliance maintenance
Check gaskets for looseness and wear Wood heating dealers carry a variety of gasket types Check door latches and hinges for fit and security Time permitting, lead a discussion of appliance maintenance. Answer any questions that arise.

48 Good fuel is the secret to efficiency
Firewood This is a title slide to introduce a discussion of firewood. Good fuel is the secret to efficiency

49 A cord of firewood A full cord measures 4 feet by 4 feet by 8 feet or 128 cu. ft. At right are three “face” cords each measuring 4’ high by 8’ long by 16” wide, or 43 cu. ft. each or combined, one full cord. How to compare prices of “face” cords that are not 16” and therefore not a third of a cord? Calculate its volume in cubic feet and compare it to the 128 cubic foot full cord.

50 In early spring, the wood should be:
Cut to length Split to a variety of sizes, and Stacked on rails to keep it off the ground Just the top covered (or not covered) Some people argue that firewood must be covered to dry properly. Others say it is not necessary. If in doubt, cover your wood. To be ready for burning in the fall

51 Firewood Piece Length East-west loading North-south loading

52 How to tell if wood is dry
There are cracks in the end grain The wood darkens with aging A freshly split face feels warm and dry Dry wood sounds hollow, wet wood sounds dull Burn some: if it hisses, it is much too wet Read this slide and discuss.

53 Reasons people burn wet wood:
Procrastination Wishful Thinking

54 What is the best wood to burn?
All species have about the same heat energy per pound; the difference is in density Don’t demand only high value hardwoods like maple and oak; they may be too rare to burn Lower value, shorter lived species like birch and poplar make excellent firewood, but expect to pay less In Canada’s north people burn spruce and poplar yet manage to stay warm Time permitting, lead a discussion of firewood species used locally and their preparation and storage.

55 Moisture, mould & bugs Don’t bring wet wood into the house because it can lead to serious moisture problems and promote mould growth Avoid rotted and mouldy firewood because it can cause allergic reactions and often doesn’t have much energy Stressed, diseased trees attract bugs and are often used for firewood; check for bugs and always store firewood off the ground The Canadian Food Inspection Agency says: “Stressed (weakened) trees and forests are often more susceptible to pest attack and have the highest risk for infestation. A tree can naturally become stressed through environmental factors such as fire, wind, ice, flood, drought and climate change, as well as through indigenous insect and disease damage. These trees are often used for firewood purposes. When firewood is collected from these areas the invasive pests will be again introduced into new areas and threaten our vast resource of deciduous and coniferous species.”

56 Do Burn Don’t Burn Coated, painted or pressure treated wood
Salt water driftwood Plywood, particle board or any wood with glue on or in it Household garbage Cardboard and paper products Unseasoned wood Clean, seasoned firewood Just enough plain newspaper to get the fire started Commercial fire starters are usually ok. Read this slide. Point out that household garbage, which contains bleached, coated and coloured paper, as well as various forms of plastic, produces toxic emissions when burned. Burning any of the materials in the list on the left will pollute the air around your house and in your community.

57 Is there smoke coming from your chimney?
More examples on next slide.

58 Signs of poor wood burning practice
See commentary on the next slide.

59 How would you like to live downwind?

60 How to burn without making smoke
Burn hot, bright fires Before loading, rake your coals Burn in cycles Use smaller loads in mild weather Let the space cool a little before loading Fire each load hot before turning down Read this slide. This is a title and summary slide. 6 following give detail.

61 1. Burn hot, bright fires Wood should be flaming until it is reduced to charcoal Never let a fire smoulder because smouldering wastes wood and makes a lot of smoke and creosote Read this slide. The following tips can help to keep the wood flaming and avoid smouldering.

62 2. Before loading, rake your coals
Remove ash frequently to provide room for loading Rake the live coals from the back to the front of the firebox Place wood on and behind hot coals The objective is to avoid smothering the hot coals, but rather to use them to ignite the new wood load quickly. Point out that raking coals to the front like this works for most stoves in which the air reaches the fire from the front through air supplies in the door, below the door or through a glass airwash system. For other stove designs, look for where the air reaches the fire and move the coals to that location so the air reaches the coals first, then the new wood load. Where the manufacturer provides specific instructions, follow those.

63 3. Burn in cycles Don’t add one or two pieces an hour in an effort to produce steady heat output Wood burns best in cycles A cycle starts when wood is placed on and behind a raked coal bed A cycle ends when the load is reduced to the same sized coal bed Read this slide and discuss the use of firing cycles. The Burning Wood Efficiently chapter of A Guide to Residential Wood Heating provides a detailed discussion of this topic.

64 4. Use smaller loads in mild weather
In mild weather use several smaller pieces, not just fewer large pieces Put on less wood at a time than you would in cold weather Avoid long, smouldering fires Every fire should flame brightly until it is reduced to charcoal. To burn without smoke, you need your firewood split to a variety of sizes from 3” (75 mm) to 6” (150 mm) across. A small load, stacked crisscross and burned hot can take the chill off the space in relatively mild weather without overheating it and without causing smoke. Small load Mild weather Larger load Cold weather

65 6. Fire each load hot A new load cools the firebox, so it needs to be heated up again Open the air control fully Let the wood burn brightly until it is charred and the edges are glowing red Only then should you reduce the air setting, but not enough to put out the flames The amount of time a load needs to be fired before turning the air down depends on the size of the load and the species and moisture content of the wood. The time ranges from about 5 to 20 minutes.

66 5. Let the space cool Ignore the fire until you notice the room, space or house cooling off Then add the right amount of wood to suit the conditions A small load stacked crisscross burns quickly and cleanly but will not overheat the space. A larger load placed compactly in the firebox releases its heat more slowly and will burn overnight without smouldering.

67 5 Ways to Control Heat Output
Fuel species: softer woods for mild weather Load size: small load for mild weather Load configuration: loose, crisscross for mild weather Load orientation: east-west for mild weather Reduce the air supply

68 Judge your progress, check your chimney!
You can judge your progress towards clean burning by looking up at your chimney A little smoke is normal just after loading But a fire that is burning properly produces little or no visible smoke from the chimney Check the chimney and judge your progress! This is the message you want everyone to take home.

69 A Burn it Smart Summary:
Safer Good system design Less smoke, less creosote Get advice from a WETT pro More Efficient Smouldering wastes fuel Flaming fires release the wood’s energy Advanced technologies are effective, convenient Healthier Less chance of smoke in your house Reduced pollution in your neighbourhood Read slide.

70 The Wood Heat Organization Inc.
and the woodpile Please visit us!

71 Thank you for attending
Burn it Smart! Thank hosts, sponsors and partners and thank everyone for attending.

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