Presentation on theme: "Steven Jin, P.E. The 4 th IGCC June 27, 2013. Many water delivery systems do not own enough storage capacity. They adjust pumping to roughly match the."— Presentation transcript:
Many water delivery systems do not own enough storage capacity. They adjust pumping to roughly match the water system demand variations. More water is pumped during peak hour periods and less water is pumped during off-peak hours.
1. Pumping & Water Storage Optimization 2. Energy Use Changes
DWSD (1993, 2007) City of Pontiac (2009) Monroe (GLPF, 2011) Oakland County (2012) Other Studies
Adding more water storage would reduce on-peak pumping requirements. Pumps can be run at constant or near constant rates for both on-peak and off-peak periods. That reduces energy costs by minimizing the electrical demand charge.
1. Pumping & Water Storage Optimization 2. Energy Use Changes 3. Pollutant Emission Reduction
40% of total U.S. CO2 emission produced by electricity generation Water delivery energy: 3% of the nations electricity consumption * University of Michigan Center for Sustainable System factsheets (online).
Service Area – 1,000 square miles (population near 4 Million). 2012 average water demand - 556 MGD. 2012 maximum day demand - 960 MGD.
5 Water Treatment Plants 20 Pumping Stations Over 3,840 mi Water Main Serve City of Detroit Serve 127 Communities (Distribution Systems)
Select 12 Largest Distribution Systems with No Storage (1/4 total DWSD demand). DWSD Directly Pumping to Supply Peak Hour Demands
Cyber water storages were added model (5 groups). Peak hour pumping reduction was investigated by modeling.
On-peak water demand hours overlap all or part of the on-peak electrical demand hours. With optimal water storage, on-peak pumping requirements can be shifted to off-peak hours. Using hydraulic model to simulate how water storage can help.
Nuclear and renewable power plants can only be operated as a base plant (not as a peaking plant). Nuclear/renewable plants emit no CO2. Peaking plants are required to be started or shut off quickly. Peaking plants are powered by natural gas & fuel oil.
Relative to other fuels, nuclear or renewable fuels are cheaper. During low electrical demand hours, marginal power plants might be nuclear or renewable fuel type. Shifting on-peak electrical demand reduce energy cost and CO2 emission.
*LMP method, by T. H. Carter, 2011 based on the studies using MISOs data
Using the LMP method to find hourly marginal generation types. Using data in EPAs eGRID to calculate pollution emission factors (in lbs/kWh). CO2 Emission Rate for Coal fuel Generation is 2.07 (lbs/kWh)
Energy Reduction x Emission Rate = CO2 Emission Reduction = 27,757 (kWh) x 2.07 (lbs/kWh) = 57,457 (lbs, or 26.1 tonnes)