2 Total consumer surplus Total producer surplus Normal good Demand curveSupply curveQuantity demandedQuantity suppliedConsumer surplusProducer surplusTotal consumer surplusTotal producer surplusNormal goodInferior goodFor applications, click hereSubstitutesComplementsInside and Outside the Classroom Activities The best way for students to get comfortable with shifting supply and demand curves is to practice. Once your lecture is over, spend some time asking them to shift supply and demand curves in their notebooks in response to situations you present them with. Here are some examples to get you started:What would happen (or did happen):To the demand for Cleveland Cavaliers tickets if LeBron James was tradedTo the supply of houses if lumber became more expensiveTo the demand for televisions if computers broadcast more video of live eventsTo the demand for CD players when iTunes was releasedTo the supply of sneakers if companies had to hire more expensive U.S. labor instead of less expensive foreign laborTo the supply of automobiles if the government subsidizes productionTo the demand for Celtics merchandise after they won the NBA finalsTo the supply of automobiles if GM goes out of businessTo the demand for McDonald’s hamburgers if a Wendy’s opens up next doorTo the supply of new flat screen televisions if the economy is expected to be in a prolonged recession.To Try it! questions
5 Demand Demand represents the behavior of buyers. A Demand Curve shows the quantity demanded at different prices.The Quantity Demanded: the quantity that buyers are willing (and able) to purchase at a particular price.
6 Law of DemandPrice and Quantity Demanded are negatively related
7 The Demand Curve for Oil Price of Oil per BarrelQuantity of Oil (MBD)DemandPriceQuantity Demanded$555$2025$550$555$2025$550
8 Reading Demand Curves Demand curves can be read in two ways: Horizontally: How much buyers are willing and able to purchase at a certain price.Vertically: The highest price buyers are willing to pay for a certain quantity.
9 Intuition of the Demand Curve When the price is high, oil will only be used in the high value products. If the price falls, oil will also be used in lower value products.Price of Oil per BarrelHigher Valued Uses of OilLower Valued Uses of Oil$12020$20120DemandQuantity of Oil (MBD)
10 Consumer SurplusConsumer Surplus is the consumer’s gain from exchange,the difference between the highest price a consumer will pay at a given quantity and the actual market price.Total consumer surplus is the sum of consumer surplus of all buyers.
11 Your roommate just bought an iPad for $600 Your roommate just bought an iPad for $600. She would have been willing to pay $1,000 for a machine that could make her life so much more worthwhile. How much consumer surplus does your roommate enjoy from the iPad?$600$400$1600$1400To nextTry it!
12 Consumer Surplus Price of Oil per Barrel Quantity of Oil (MBD) Consumer Surplus is the Area beneath the Demand Curve and above the PriceTotal Consumer Surplus at a Price of $20½(80-20)x90 = $2,700Area of TriangleHeightBase½(Base x Height)802090Joe’s Consumer SurplusThe President’s Consumer SurplusDemandTeaching Tip:You can easily personalize consumer surplus. Look for a studentwith a Coke, coffee, or water. Ask them how much they paid for it.Then ask if that was the maximum they would have paid or if the storehad been charging a little more would they still have bought it. They likelywill admit they still would have bought it.Then ask what is the maximumprice they would have paid before walking away without buying. Calculatetheir consumer surplus from the transaction and relate this to how itwould be measured on a demand diagram.
13 If the price is $2010, what is the consumer surplus? $3,588,000 $1,794,000$6,000,000$3,000,000To nextTry it!
14 What Shifts the Demand Curve? An “increase in demand” means that consumers buy more at every price level, (or consumers are willing to pay more for each quantity.)On the graph: the demand curve shifts outwards, up, and to the right.
15 What Shifts the Demand Curve? A “decrease in demand” means that consumers buy less at every price level, (or they reduce the price they’re willing to pay for a given quantity.)On the graph: the demand curve shifts inwards, down, and to the left.
16 A Decrease in Demand Price per Unit Quantity $50 80 $25 70 Old Demand Curve$2570Lower Willingness to Pay for the Same QuantityLess Quantity Demanded at the Same PriceNew Demand Curve
17 An Increase in Demand Price per Unit Quantity Greater Quantity Demanded at the Same PriceGreater Willingness to Pay for the Same Quantity$50$25New Demand CurveOld Demand Curve7080
18 Important Demand Shifters: IncomePopulationPrice of SubstitutesPrice of ComplementsExpectationsTastes
19 Important Demand Shifters: Income The effect of changes in income on demand depends on the nature of the good in question.A Normal Good: demand increases when income increases (and vice versa).An Inferior Good: demand decreases when income increases (and vice versa)Teaching Tip: Ask the students what things they currently purchase but plan to stop buying once they graduate and get a full-time job. You’re likely to get lots of examples of inferior goods.
20 increases; increases; increases increases; increases; decreases When the price of petroleum goes up, the demand for natural gas ______, the demand for coal ______, and the demand for solar power ______.increases; increases; increasesincreases; increases; decreasesdecreases; decreases; increasesdecreases; decreases; decreasesTo nextTry it!
21 Important Demand Shifters: Population As the population of an economy changes, the # of buyers of a particular good also changes, (thereby changing its demand.)What happens to the demand for diapers in Russia as birth rates drop?
22 Important Demand Shifters: Price of Substitutes Two goods are Substitutes if a decrease in the price of one leads to a decrease in demand for the other (or vice versa).- What happens to the demand for travel in Hawaii if the (perceived) safety cost of traveling to Mexico increases?
23 Important Demand Shifters: Price of Complements Two goods are Complements if a decrease in the price of one good leads to an increase in the demand for the other (or vice versa).What happens to the demand for Sport Utility Vehicles when gasoline gets more expensive?Teaching Tip: Demand shifts for complements and substitutes are often a subject that students believe they understand while you are demonstrating examples, but then struggle with when they have to solve problems for themselves.After covering complements and substitutes in class it’s often a good idea to pose a couple of questions to students and ask them to draw the demand shifts in their own notes. Give them a few questions and a few minutes to solve them. Then go over the answers. It’s an easy way for students to get immediate feedback on whether they’ve really understood what you were teaching or whether they were just following along.
24 Price of ComplementsConsumers often have to buy goods together. An increase in price of gasoline will decrease the demand for SUVs
25 Important Demand Shifters: Expectations The expectation of a higher (lower) price for a good in the future increases (decreases) current demand for the good.Consumers will adjust their current spending in anticipation of the direction of future prices in order to obtain the lowest possible price.If prices for Xbox 360 consoles are expected to drop right before Christmas, what will happen to sales during November?Instructor Notes: This one often gives students some trouble. It is important to stress that this price-demand relationship is at different points in time. Buyers will postpone purchases if they think prices will fall and will accelerate their purchases if they think prices will rise.Many states in the U.S. offer sales tax holidays where certain goods, such as clothing, electronics, and school supplies, are exempted from state sales taxes for a brief period of time, typically just before school commences in the Fall. Many parents time purchases for their children around these tax holidays since the prices on things like laptops will be lower (anywhere from 4-7%).Consumers tend to respond to natural disasters in the opposite direction. After a severe hurricane, for example, consumers often fear that gas prices will climb and rush to the gas stations to fill up the tanks in their cars to preempt the price increase.From “Liquor Store Shoppers Beat Tax” by Ryan Alessi Lexington Herald Leader March 30, 2009Ever since the Kentucky General Assembly approved a new 6 percent sales tax on alcohol last month, Torry Lemp had made a mental note to go on a liquor run before the levy takes effect April 1. So Lemp and his brother Terry, who was visiting from Florida, spent part of Sunday afternoon at the Beaumont Centre Liquor Barn in Lexington filling a cart with bottles of wine, vodka and tequila to save a few bucks before Wednesday. "That's why we're here. Last time I was in here, I thought 'I have to be back here before the tax kicks in on the first,'" Torry Lemp said. Even if Liquor Barn customers didn't know the new tax is coming when they walked into the store, it was hard to miss the dozens of fluorescent tags taped below bottles of wine, liquor and packs of beer. Liquor Barn's "Beat the tax" tags outlined how much each bottle will cost at the register before April 1 and what it will be afterward. One tag underneath a 1.75 liter bottle of Tanqueray Vodka noted: "Today you pay $ April 1 you pay $37.40." "That was my idea," Liquor Barn president Roger Leasor said of the tags. "And we're seeing some response from it. It's not huge but it's building." Leasor said the Lexington area Liquor Barn stores might stay open beyond their normal 10 p.m. closing time Tuesday in case of a last-minute rush as consumers try to stock up before the tax takes effect. Currently, liquor, wine and beer sold in Kentucky stores are taxed only on the wholesale level, so the tax is built into the price. However, bottles or drafts sold in restaurants and bars do have sales tax applied. The legislature approved tacking on the 6 percent sales tax - the same level applied to products other than food and medicine - as part of a package of measures to plug an expected $456 million hole in the state budget this fiscal year, which ends June 30. In addition to the alcohol sales tax, lawmakers raised the cigarette tax 30 cents per pack and shifted some government funds around. Gov. Steve Beshear also is imposing 4 percent cuts to state agencies and 2 percent to universities, although the budget reductions would have been broader and deeper without the cigarette and alcohol taxes. The income from those increases will raise $52 million by July 1 and more than three times that in fiscal year 2010.Pre-party boost expected"I think they've got to tax something. They might as well tax booze and cigarettes," said James Mischka, who lives in Lexington on the weekends and was browsing for Seagrams vodka Sunday. Mischka said he didn't know about the new tax until he came into Liquor Barn Sunday. But he said he didn't think it would deter him from buying alcohol. Leasor, Liquor Barn's president, said he estimated about 30 percent of the stores' customers don't know that they haven't had to pay sales tax at the register on beer or liquor until the levy approved by the legislature. Now that the tax increase has generated publicity, he said, he's expecting many people with upcoming events, such as weddings or Kentucky Derby parties, to buy their booze in the next two days. One customer at Shoppers Village Liquors near Chevy Chase spent $639 Sunday afternoon to buy five boxes of liquor, including two cases of bourbon and a case of vodka for his mother, said clerk Shelby McCuddy. That saved him $38 he would have paid in sales tax after April 1. "People are taking moderate advantage of it and that will build toward Tuesday," said Leasor, whose company also owns Shoppers Village. "It'll be interesting to see what happens in April. I don't know what to expect. But I don't think it will change people's habits in the long run."Cigarette tax a bigger hit Josh Talbert of Lexington said the tax might hurt more this summer when he and his wife throw some barbecues. The big financial hit for the Talbert household will be the cigarette tax increase, coupled with a 62-cent federal cigarette tax increase, he said. But he hoped his wife, who smoked a pack a day before becoming pregnant, will use the 92 cents per pack jump in taxes as motivation to quit. Torry Lemp said Sunday marked his second day being cigarette-free, although he admitted to chomping on cigars to help ween him off a habit he's had for 32 of his 46 years.That, he said, might be the best result of all the tax increases. "I can't afford to smoke anymore," he said. "It's time to quit anyway for my health. I want to live a lot longer." Reach Ryan Alessi at (859)
26 Important Demand Shifters: Tastes Tastes and preferences are subjective and will vary among consumers.Seasonal changes or fads have predictable effects on demand.What happens to demand for boots in October? To carbohydrates during the Atkins diet fad? Or to Acai berries after newly perceived health benefits?Instructor Notes: There are tons of examples here, and students may need a few to get the hang of it.The Atkins diet craze influenced the types of food people ate. Consumers switched away from carbohydrates and started eating more red meat. Of course, when Dr. Atkins passed from a heart attack, dieters began to rethink their food choices and started consuming less red meat.Advertising tries to influence tastes and preferences. Students will easily recognize this. A good exercise would be to talk about both good and bad television commercials.
27 What Shifts the Demand Curve? A “change in quantity demanded” is NOT the same as a “change in demand.”“Quantity demanded” changes only when the price of a good changes.It is a movement along a fixed demand curve.“Demand” changes only when a non-price factor (demand shifter) changes.It is a shift in the entire demand curve.Students have a real problem with this distinction. It is important to stress that the two changes are caused by different things and have different effects on the model. When supply and demand are brought together in Chapter 3, students might understand this better. That is, they will recognize that that a change in supply causes price to change which in turn causes quantity demanded to change. It is tempting to try to bring in that logic here, but it is recommended to wait until that chapter.A “change in Quantity Demanded”A “change in Demand”
28 When the price of a good increases the quantity demanded ______ When the price of a good increases the quantity demanded ______. When the price of a good decreases the quantity demanded ______.rises; risesrises; fallsfalls; risesfalls; fallsTo nextTry it!
29 What made this oil field happen? SupplyWhat made this oil field happen?
30 Supply Supply represents the behavior of sellers. A Supply Curve shows the quantity supplied at different prices.The Quantity Supplied is the quantity that producers are willing and able to sell at a particular price.
31 Law of SupplyWhat do you think happens to the quantity of human organs donated in Israel when the government issues a point system that rewards donors?The Law of Supply: there is a direct relationship between price and quantity supplied.When price rises, all else equal, quantity supplied rises and vice versaForThe original BBC article:BBC News health correspondentIsrael is to become the first country to give donor card carriers a legal right to priority treatment if they should require an organ transplant.Organs for transplant are in short supplyThe law has been changed to try to boost donation rates, as there is a shortage for organs for donation.Partners and close relatives of those with signed donor cards will also move up the queue, The Lancet medical journal reports.Critics say patients should be treated on the basis of clinical need.We would have serious concerns about a system that would move away from treating patients on the basis of clinical needWriting in The Lancet, Professor Jacob Lavee, of the Sheba Medical Centre, one of the leading advocates for the reform, describes Israel's organ donation statistics as "grim".Dr Vivienne Nathanson British Medical AssociationIn 2006, the Israel National Transplant Council established a special committee, including ethicists, philosophers, religious representatives and transplant surgeons to review the problem.Only one in 10 adults in Israel carries a donor card. In the UK about one in four adults is on the organ donor register.Their proposal to bring in non-medical criteria for organ allocation required legislation by the Israeli parliament.Under the planned point-based system, people who have signed a donor card will be given priority for a transplant.Their partners and other close relatives will also qualify.Urgent casesHowever, there will be no preference for live donors who give to a chosen recipient rather than the wider waiting list.Patients requiring an urgent transplant because of their serious condition will continue to have priority, regardless of the new points-scheme.But if there are two people in this situation who are equally suitable for a donated organ, the priority system will come into play.Professor Lavee said the new policy "provides an incentive for individuals to agree to help each other".It is important that donated organs are available for those who need them mostMubeen Bhutta British Heart FoundationBut he acknowledged that it violated the principle of "true altruism", and the "ideal" of care being provided solely according to medical need.He said: "If this policy results in the procurement of more organs for transplantation, then it promotes a different but nonetheless important goal of medicine - achievement of maximum health."However, he concluded that this was a price worth paying.MisgivingsDr Vivienne Nathanson, head of science and ethics at the British Medical Association, voiced strong misgivings."We would have serious concerns about a system that would move away from treating patients on the basis of clinical need," she said."Once you start prioritising certain groups, for example those that sign up to the organ register, patients who are really sick and in danger of dying if they don't receive an organ may end up being pushed to the back of the queue".And Mubeen Bhutta, Policy Manager at the British Heart Foundation, said: "This interesting new law in Israel highlights the challenges facing countries around the world seeking to increase the availability of donated organs."However, it is important that donated organs are available for those who need them most.The BMA and BHF both support the introduction of presumed consent, where instead of opting into donation by signing a register - as happens in the UK - people would be required to state if they did not want their organs to be used for transplantation.Presumed consentThis approach also has the strong backing of the Chief Medical Officer for England, Professor Sir Liam Donaldson, who announced this week that he would step down from the post next May."I would love to see presumed consent on organs," he said.The Department of Health in England says the UK's organ donation system has to ensure that patients are treated equally and fairly, based on their need and the importance of achieving the closest possible match."This prissiness about the idea of giving organs to somebody after you have died - I think it's something that's not supported by the public."A spokesman said: "More people are signing up to the organ donor register than ever before but, despite this, three people die every day while waiting for a transplant and more donors are needed."We aim to see donor rates increase from 800 donors to 1,400 donors per year by March 2013, and 20 million people on the organ donor register by 2010, working towards 25 million by 2013."The new arrangements will come into force in January 2011, with priority going to all those who have had a signed donor card for at least a year.Preparations for the new policy in Israel will start in the new year with a publicity campaign.
32 The Supply Curve for Oil Quantity of Oil (MBD)Price of Oil per BarrelThe Supply Curve for OilSupply Curve for Oil503010$5$20$55PriceQuantity Supplied
33 Reading Supply Curves Supply curves can be read in two ways: Horizontally: How much suppliers are willing and able to sell at a certain price.Vertically: The minimum price for which suppliers are willing to sell a certain quantity.
34 Supply Curves Why is the supply curve upward sloping? The cost of producing a good is not equal across all suppliers.At a low price, a good is produced and sold only by the lowest cost suppliers.At a high price, a good is also produced and sold by higher cost suppliers.Instructor Notes:
35 The Supply Curve for Oil Quantity of Oil (MBD)Price of Oil per Barrel604020$60$40$2080100The Supply Curve for OilSupplyOil Shale Profitable HereHigher Cost OilThe Supply Curve for Oil As the price of oil rises, it becomes profitable to extract oil from more costly sources. Thus, as the price of oil rises the quantity of oil supplied increases.Low Cost Oil: Saudi ArabiaHigh Cost Oil: Oil ShaleLow cost oil producers in Saudi Arabia are willing to sell their oil at low prices while high cost U.S. oil producers require a higher price to sell their oil.Low Cost Oil
36 Furthermore…Does sex have a “price?” See this blog post for a discussion about changes in supply and demand for sex.
37 Producer Surplus Producer Surplus is the producer’s gain from exchange the difference between the market price and the minimum price at which producers would be willing to sell a certain quantity.Total producer surplus is the sum of the producer surplus of each seller.Graphically, total producer surplus is measured by the area above the supply curve and below the price.A simple lemonade stand may be a good example here. Imagine neighborhood children and their lemonade stand. It only costs them 5 cents to make a cup of lemonade, but they receive a quarter for each cup. They have gained 20 cents from the trade. That is their producer surplus.
38 Producer Surplus $40 $20 $60 60 40 Supply Curve 20 80 Producer Surplus is the Area Above the Supply Curve and Below the PriceQuantity of Oil (MBD)Price of Oil per Barrel$40$20$606040Supply Curve2080Total Producer Surplus at a Price of $40Producer Surplus Is the Area above the Supply Curve and below the Price Total producer surplus is the sum of the producer surplus of each seller, the area above the supply curve and below the price.
39 Using the following diagram, calculate total producer surplus if the price of oil is $50 per barrel. $45$1,350$2,700To nextTry it!
40 Lower Costs Increase Supply Change in SupplyLower Costs Increase SupplyQuantity of Oil (MBD)Price of Oil per BarrelOld Supply$5020Greater Quantity Supplied at the Same PriceNew Supply$10Instructor Notes: Figure 2.11: Shifting the Supply Curve (A) A decrease in costs shifts the supply curve down and to the right.Willing to Sell Same Quantity at Lower Prices80
41 Higher Costs Decrease Supply Change in SupplyNew SupplyHigher Costs Decrease SupplyQuantity of Oil (MBD)Price of Oil per BarrelOld Supply20Smaller Quantity Supplied at the Same Price$10Higher Price Needed to Sell Same QuantityInstructor Notes: Figure 2.11: Shifting the Supply Curve (A) A decrease in costs shifts the supply curve down and to the right.80
42 Important Supply Shifters Technological InnovationsInput PricesTaxes and SubsidiesExpectationsEntry or Exit of ProducersChanges in Opportunity CostsInstructor Notes:
43 Important Supply Shifters: Technological Innovations A technological innovation makes sellers willing to offer more at a given price, or sell a their quantity at a lower price.A technological innovation lowers costs and increases supply.Instructor Notes: There are lots of examples here. The main point is the connection between technology and costs.From The Western Farm Press, “New Module-Building Cotton Picker Unveiled” November 4, 2006:“… “The Case IH Module Express design started as a collaboration with growers and ginners — a lot of people in the industry have contributed to the development of this machine,” he [Trent A. Haggard] said. “We've changed for the better the way cotton will be handled from picker to gin.”The biggest change — aside from becoming accustomed to the sight of a 16-foot-long “half” module coming out of the back of the picker — is in the number of people involved in the harvesting.“The first question I'm always asked is, ‘Can I get rid of my boll buggy and separate module builder?’” says Haggard. “With the Module Express 625 picker, it's one man, one machine for cotton harvest and module building, so you reduce your equipment and labor investment dramatically.”How much you save depends on your operation. [Jimmy] Hargett has said he believes you can save 10 to 12 workers in a typical harvesting operation. When he was testing two Module Express 625 pickers in 2005, he did it with five workers — two picker operators, two men in a truck putting tarps on the modules and one man driving a tractor with a Bush Hog. Hargett ran four of the new pickers in 2006.If you operate 12 pickers, 12 boll buggies and 12 module builders as Kenneth Hood and his brothers, Howard, Curtis and Cary have done in the past, “then you've just reduced your work force by 24 men,” says Kenneth. “Not only do you save money, but it's difficult to find those extra 24 people in our area these days.”Producers may also gain efficiency from other sources, according to Haggard.The Module Express 625 picks at about the same pace as a traditional six-row picker, but it builds the module at the same time it's picking. It also takes less time to unload a 10,000-pound module than to empty 10,000 pounds of cotton from a conventional basket.”
44 Production Technology Supply will increase for products when technology improvesExamples: Computers, gaming systems, laser hair removal, flat screen TVs.
45 Important Supply Shifters: Input Prices A decrease in the price of an input (all else equal) increases profits and encourages more supply (and vice versa)What will happen to the amount of new businesses if the government reduces the fees and red tape associated with new business licenses? What happens if the fees rise?It is important for students to note that producers of finished goods are demanders for inputs used to make those finished goods. It might be a good idea to pick a product that students are familiar with, say a car or a truck, and ask them what is used in its production. Students should see pretty quickly that the prices of these inputs affect the cost of producing the finished and good and ultimately the supply.
46 Important Supply Shifters: Taxes and Subsidies A tax on output reduces profit and makes sellers less willing to supply at a given price, unless they can effectively raise the price without losing any sales. (for now, assume they cannot)A tax on output raises costs and decreases supply.Graph the effect on supply of a new cigarette tax in your notes.Instructor Notes: Governments often place taxes on business to raise revenue for spending projects.From the 2007 Montana Tax Code:“ License tax on producers of gypsum and cement. Every person engaged in or carrying on the business in the state of producing or manufacturing cement, gypsum, gypsum plaster, stucco, wallboard, land plaster, or other products of cement or gypsum must pay to the department of revenue for the use of the state a license tax for engaging in and carrying on such business in the state in an amount equal to the following sums: (1) for each ton of cement produced or manufactured by such person or used by such person in the manufacture or production of any of the articles or products hereinabove enumerated, 22 cents; (2) for each ton of gypsum produced or manufactured by such person or used by such person in the manufacture or production of any of the articles or products hereinabove named, 5 cents.”These numbers may seem small, but they add up and represent a direct cost to the firm.Governments often give subsidies to producers to make them more competitive with cheaper foreign producers.From The Independent, January 7, 2007:“Producers of one of the most expensive foods on earth, the truffle, are campaigning for a European Union subsidy.French truffles are fetching up to €800 a killogram - or £260 a pound - this winter in village markets in the south of France. Producers have asked the European Commission to give them a subsidy to plant more "truffle trees" - the varieties of oak that promote the growth of the much-prized underground fungi, which are sniffed out by dogs and pigs. … Only about 20 tons are expected to come to market in the south of France this winter. If nothing is done, the truffle producers say, the European market will be overwhelmed by an influx of cheaper, and less powerfully tasting, Chinese truffles.”
47 Important Supply Shifters: Taxes and Subsidies A subsidy on production makes sellers willing to supply a greater quantity at a given price, or the subsidy allows producers to sell a given quantity at a lower price.A subsidy on production lowers costs and increases supply.Graph the effect on supply of a new subsidy to fast food producers aimed at helping them market and sell overseas.
48 Taxes and SubsidiesSeems like a good thing to tax….Or not: The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 applied a 10% federal luxury tax to the retail sale of luxury goods such as pleasure boats with a sales price above the $100,000. Expected tax revenue? $9 billion. Reality?Sales of boats down 52.7%;Net loss of 30,000 jobs;The federal government paid out > $7 million more in unemployment benefits to those workers than it collected in luxury tax revenues.The federal luxury tax was repealed in 1993.Estimates from the Marine Retailers Association of America and The CPA Journal “Luxury Tax” by Elda DiRe, October 1991.Taxes and subsidies affect profits and therefore supply. A 10% yacht tax reduced the supply of yachts 53% in the early 1990s.
49 Cotton SupplyWhen the U.S. decreases its cotton subsidies, U.S. cotton supply decreases
50 Important Supply Shifters: Taxes and Subsidies Quantity of Oil (MBD)Price of Oil per BarrelWith a $10 Tax Suppliers Require a $10 Higher Price to Sell the Same Quantity$10Supply With $10 Tax$50Supply Without Tax$4060Instructor Notes: Figure 2.12: A Tax on Industry Output Shifts the Supply Curve Up by the Amount of the Tax When suppliers pay no tax, they are willing to supply 60 MBD of oil for a price of $40 per barrel. If they must pay a tax of $10 per barrel, they will be willing to supply 60 MBD for $10 more, or $50 a barrel. Thus a tax shifts the supply curve up by the amount of the tax.A subsidy to suppliers would have the opposite effect and would shift the supply curve down by the amount of the subsidy.
51 Important Supply Shifters: Expectations The expectation of a higher price for a good in the future decreases current supply of the good – if they can store the good- (and vice versa).Sellers will adjust their current offerings in anticipation of the direction of future prices in order to obtain the highest possible price.Instructor Notes: Like on the demand side, this one often gives students some trouble (probably more so). It is important to stress that this price-supply relationship is at different points in time. Sellers will accelerate current production for sale if they think prices will fall in the future and will delay current production if they think prices will rise in the future.From The Wall Street Journal, “We Can Lower Oil Prices Now” by Martin Feldstein, July 1, 2008:“… Unlike perishable agricultural products, oil can be stored in the ground. So when will an owner of oil reduce production or increase inventories instead of selling his oil and converting the proceeds into investible cash? A simplified answer is that he will keep the oil in the ground if its price is expected to rise faster than the interest rate that could be earned on the money obtained from selling the oil. The actual price of oil may rise faster or slower than is expected, but the decision to sell (or hold) the oil depends on the expected price rise.”
52 Future ExpectationsA change in producers’ expectations about profitability will affect supply curvesWindmill production increases as producers expect sales and profitability to increase.
53 Important Supply Shifters: Expectations Expectations Can Shift the Supply CurveQuantityPrice per UnitSupply Today with Expectation of Future Price IncreaseInto StorageSupply TodayInstructor Notes Figure 2.13: Expectations Can Shifts the Supply Curve If sellers expect a higher price in the future, today’s supply curve will shift to the left as producers store some of the good for future sales.
54 Important Supply Shifters: Entry or Exit of Producers As producers enter and exit the market, the overall supply changes.Entry implies more sellers in the market increasing supply.Exit implies fewer sellers in the market decreasing supply.What will happen to the supply for Marijuana in California if the drug is legalized for general use?Instructor Notes:
55 Number of ProducersAs more producers enter a market, supply increases (and vice versa)As more firms enter the solar installation market, the number of solar installations available for sale increases
56 Important Supply Shifters: Entry or Exit of Producers PriceQuantityEntry Increases SupplyGreater Quantity Supplied at the Same PriceLower Price for the Same Quantity SuppliedDomestic SupplyDomestic Supply Plus Canadian ImportsInstructor Notes: Figure 2.14: Entry Increases Supply The entry of lower-cost producers increases supply, thus shifting the supply curve to the right and down.Passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1992 allowed the free flow of Canadian lumber into the U.S. market thereby increasing the number of sellers and the supply of lumber in the U.S.Restrictions on foreign competitors within the domestic market place would decrease the number of sellers and, thus, the market supply.
57 Important Supply Shifters: Changes in Opportunity Costs Inputs used in production have opportunity costs. Sellers will choose to use those inputs where the profit is the highestSellers will supply less of a good if the price of an alternate good using the same inputs rises (and vice versa).Sellers always chase the highest profit goods.Instructor Notes: Students will have a good bit of difficulty grasping this one. Remind them that all activities involve an opportunity cost.From the Associated Press, August :“Last year, high corn prices helped fuel a switch from cotton acreage in Louisiana. This year, high soybean and rice prices “contributed to the all-time low in cotton acreage planted in the state,” said Nathan Crisp, director of Louisiana’s branch of the National Agricultural Statistics Service.”
58 Changes in Opportunity Costs Producers have the ability to produce other goods An increase in the profitability of small cars will decrease the supply of SUVs3-58
59 Important Supply Shifters: Changes in Opportunity Costs Higher (Opportunity) Costs Reduce Supply- Rising Wheat Prices Reduce Soybean SupplyQuantity of Soybeans (Millions of Bushels)Price per UnitSmaller Quantity Supplied at the Same PriceHigher Price Required to Sell the Same Quantity2,000$7Supply with High Opportunity Costs$5Supply with Low Opportunity Costs2,800Instructor Notes: Figure 2.15: Higher (Opportunity) Costs Reduce Supply An increase in the price of wheat increases the opportunity cost of growing soybeans, which shifts the supply curve of soybeans up and to the left.
60 What Shifts the Supply Curve? A “change in quantity supplied” is NOT the same as a “change in supply.”“Quantity supplied” changes only when the price of a good changes.It is a movement along a fixed supply curve.“Supply” changes only when a non-price factor changes.It is a shift in the entire supply curve.Instructor Notes: Students have a real problem with this distinction. It is important to stress that the two changes are caused by different things and have different effects on the model. When supply and demand are brought together in Chapter 3, students might understand this better. That is, they will recognize that that a change in demand causes price to change which in turn causes quantity supplied to change. It is tempting to try to bring in that logic here, but it is recommended to wait until that chapter.A “change in Quantity Supplied”A “change in Supply”
61 Market Price of Marijuana Explain using the concepts of supply, demand, and transport costs (including in this case smuggling costs) the pattern of prices you see here
62 The market price of the product is $20 per unit The market price of the product is $20 per unit. Calculate the dollar amount of consumer surplus being earned in this market.$120,000$60,000$100,000$80,000Back to