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Flexible Mining Cables Made for extremes Mining Cables – Owen Barry – Mine Safety – 16/10/2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Flexible Mining Cables Made for extremes Mining Cables – Owen Barry – Mine Safety – 16/10/2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flexible Mining Cables Made for extremes Mining Cables – Owen Barry – Mine Safety – 16/10/2013

2 From Picture courtesy of NSW T&I Image Library

3 To Picture courtesy of NSW T&I Image Library

4 And Picture courtesy of NSW T&I Image Library

5 From Picture courtesy of NSW T&I Image Library

6 To Picture courtesy of NSW T&I Image Library

7 And Picture courtesy of NSW T&I Image Library

8 Cable damage Likelihood of cable damage is elevated –Machines are big and mobile –Cables being dragged and pulled –Some are continually reeled –Other large equipment moving in close proximity to cables Connection to mine earth dependent on integrity of cable

9 Risk from cable damage Electrocution Electric shock Ignition of gas or dust Fires Burns (proximity to arc flash)

10 Controls to minimise risks - from cable damage Cable management plans –Training of personnel –Placement of cables –Cable handling equipment IT supply systems –1 st fault is low energy earth fault Electrical protection systems –Sensitive earth leakage Cables constructed to set standards –AS/NZS 1802 –AS/NZS 1972 –AS/NZS 2802

11 Cable handling – O/Cut

12 Standards for mining cables AS/NZS 1802:2003 Electric cablesReeling and trailingFor underground coal mining AS/NZS 1972:2006 Electric cablesUnderground coal minesOther than reeling and trailing AS/NZS 2802:2000 Electric cablesReeling and trailingFor mining and general use (other than underground coal mining)

13 Cable design Earth screened –Damage to earth before another phase Voltage rated for line to earth, not phase to earth –Function of the IT supply system Solid construction gives impact resistance Sheath materials resistant to: –Cuts, abrasions and tears –Water ingress –Chemicals – UV, oils and greases, acids & alkali –Heat

14 Extreme cable handling Example of poor cable handling. Dragline cables being towed behind a dozer

15 AS/NZS 1802:2003 Scope Reeling and trailing electric cables for use in underground coal mines. Cables used for alternating current supply must be electrically symmetrical. Specifies construction and dimensional requirements for specific types of cables

16 Cable constructions – Type 240

17 Cable constructions – Type 241

18 AS/NZS 1972:2006 Scope Specifies the construction of cables for use in underground coal mines other than reeling and trailing cables, ie –Reticulation/feeder cables –Machine cables –Mine shaft winder cables Generally, does not apply to cables for IS circuits, data, communication and control cables unless specifically covered.

19 AS/NZS 2802:2003 Scope Intended for: –surface mining, –underground mining (other than coal mining), and –general use, Allows for two classes of multicore, elastomer insulated and sheathed flexible reeling and trailing cables. No requirement for symmetrical construction

20 Cable construction – Type 450

21 AS/NZS 2802:2003 Class 1 cables Insulated with a high grade ethylene propylene rubber (XR-EP-90) Permits a reduced radial thickness for the insulation compared with equivalent rated Class 2 cables Cable sheath is extra-heavy duty (XHD-90-CSP, XHD-90-CPE or XHD-85-PCP) Designed for slow reeling or trailing applications

22 AS/NZS 2802:2003 Class 2 cables Insulated using standard R-EP-90 insulation Sheath material is HD-90-CSP, HD-90-CPE or HD- 85-PCP Greater insulation radial thickness required, providing a more robust cable Designed for trailing and most reeling applications

23 Cable construction Flexibility Issues affecting flexibility –Insulation materials –Stranding –Length of lay Bunches Cores –Screening technique –Sheath thickness –Ability of internal parts to move during flexing and bending

24 Type 245 cable

25 Cable construction Composite screens Each phase individually screened –Semiconductive layer over insulation May be elastomer and or tape For stress relief and potential equalisation VR < 200 Ωm –Copper and high tenacity yarn Usually woven May be helically wound –Screening is also cable earth

26 Cable construction Elastomer screens Phases individually screen Complete assembly collectively screened –Must carry fault current VR <1 Ωm 3 interstitial earth conductors embedded in semiconductive elastomer N.B. When crushed, the collective earth screen may separate from the phase conductor

27 Insulation Voltage Gradient Distance – phase conductor to screen Voltage Phase volts 0 volts Insulation Semi-conductive rubber earth screen

28 Cable construction Electrically symmetrical Cores arranged in geometrically symmetrical pattern to minimise the effects of induced voltage Important in hazardous zones underground –Minimises sparking between machines –Minimises touch voltages of machines relative to remote earth shuttle cars have rubber tyres Mandatory testing for symmetry by cable repair facilities

29 Future developments Cable standards presently being revised –A lot of prescriptive elements –1802 & 2802 will possibly be combined into single standard –Present tests do not adequately assess cable performance No tests for bending and flexing No tests for semiconductive individual screen

30 Future developments Performance based standard Cable performance outcomes to be defined –Bending and flexing –Tension loads –Aging under elevated operating temperatures Allow for future requirements –Fibre optics –New insulation materials –New manufacturing techniques –Higher operating voltages

31 Performance based standard Performance requirements for each application of cable to be defined: –Draglines –Shovels –Feeder cables – fixed equipment –Continuous miners –Shuttle cars –Monorail systems –Shearer

32 Performance based standard Tests Type tests to be developed –Verify design achieves required outcomes –Pass/fail criteria to be identified Routine tests to be developed –Routine tests demonstrate that the production run of cable is the same as the type tested unit –Frequency of sampling –What elements need to be checked –Allowable tolerances from type tested unit

33 Repair of cables Presently addressed under AS/NZS 1747 –Will be revised after 1802 & 2802 Manufacturers will need to identify how repairs will be performed when developing new cable designs –Repair materials –Repair techniques Issue: Mines will need to define element such as stranding and length of lay for compatibility with existing cable fleet

34 Thank you Questions

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