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Chapter 4: Training and Conditioning Techniques

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1 Chapter 4: Training and Conditioning Techniques

2 Reduce Injury Prepare the Athlete

3 Athletic Trainers and Strength and Conditioning Coaches
Cooperative relationship that serves to condition athletes in an effort to minimize injury and maximize performance Knowledge of flexibility, strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance is necessary Many strength coaches are certified through the National Strength and Conditioning Association

4 Athletic trainer may be called upon to review programs/make suggestions
Take into consideration components of particular sport and injury prevention Rehabilitation of injuries is the responsibility of the athletic trainer Different settings (professional, college, high school) will require differing levels of supervision by the ATC


6 Periodization in Training and Conditioning
Traditional seasons no longer exist for serious athletes Periodization Achieve peak performance Decrease injuries and overtraining Program that spans various seasons Modify program relative to athlete’s needs

7 Macrocycle Complete training cycle
Seasonal approach based on preseason, in-season, and off-season Changes in intensity, volume, specificity of training occur in order to achieve peak levels of fitness for competition Broken into mesocycles (lasting weeks or months)

8 Mesocycles Transition period: Preparatory period:
Follows last competition (early off-season) Unstructured (escape rigors of training) Preparatory period: Off-season Hypertropy/endurance phase (Low intensity with high volume) Allows for development of endurance base Lasts several weeks to 2 months Strength Phase Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season)

9 Preparatory period (continued)
Strength Phase Intensity and volume increase to moderate levels Power Phase (High intensity/ pre-season) Volume is decreased to allow adequate recovery Competition period: May last a < week or several months for seasonal sports High intensity, low volume, skill training sessions May incorporate microcycles (1-7 days) Designed to ensure peak on days of competition

10 Cross Training Training for a sport with substitutions of alternative activities (carryover value) Useful in transition and preparatory periods Variety to training regimen Should be discontinued prior to preseason as it is not sport-specific

11 Principles of Conditioning and Training
Warm-up/Cool-down Motivation Overload and SAID principle Consistency/routine Progression Intensity Specificity Individuality Relaxation/Minimize Stress Safety

12 Warm-up Precaution against unnecessary musculoskeletal injury and soreness May enhance certain aspects of performance Prepares body physiologically for physical work Stimulates cardiorespiratory system, enhancing circulation and blood flow to muscles Increases metabolic processes, core temperature, and muscle elasticity

13 General Activities which bring a general warming to the body(break a sweat) Not related to sport Specific Specific to sport Stretching, jogging, running, throwing, catching Should last minutes resulting in effects that will last 45 minutes

14 Cool-down Essential component of workout
Bring body back to resting state 5-10 minutes in duration Often ignored Decreased muscle soreness following training if time used to stretch after workout

15 Improving and Maintaining Flexibility
Ability to move a joint(s) smoothly through a full range of motion (ROM) Decreased ROM results in: Decreased performance capabilities Uncoordinated/awkward movements Predisposes athlete to injury Good flexibility is essential for successful physical performance Recommended by athletic trainers to prevent injury

16 Factors That Limit Flexibility
Bony structures Tissue approximation Excessive fat Muscle and tendon lengths Connective tissue Scarring and contractures Skin


18 Range of Motion (ROM) Active range of motion = dynamic flexibility
Ability to move a joint with little resistance Passive range of motion = static flexibility Motion of joint to end points without muscle contraction Must be able to move through unrestricted range Must have elasticity for additional stretch encountered during activity

19 Agonist vs. Antagonist Muscles
Joints are capable of multiple movements Example: Quadriceps will extend knee with contraction Hamstrings will stretch during extension Quads (muscle producing movement) referred to as agonist Muscle undergoing stretch referred to as antagonist Agonist and antagonist work together to produce smooth coordinated movements

20 Stretching Techniques
Ballistic Bouncing movement in which repetitive contractions of agonist work to stretch antagonist muscle Spindles tighten instead of relax Possible soreness (soccer example)

21 Static stretching Passively stretching 6-8 second hold
Go to point of pain and back off and hold for 30 seconds (3 to 4 times) Controlled, less chance of injury Not dynamic

22 Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation
Physical therapy for neuromuscular paralysis Slow-reversal-hold-relax Contract-relax Hold-relax Ten second push, ten second relax Best technique to improve flexibility Autogenic inhibition (push = tension) Reciprocal inhibition (pull = relax)


24 Neurophysiological Basis of Stretching
Stretch Reflex Muscle is placed on stretch(muscle spindle) Muscle spindles fire relaying info. to spinal cord Spinal cord relays message to golgi tendon and increases tension After 6 seconds golgi tendon organ (GTO) relays signal for muscle tension to decrease Prevents injury - protective mechanism


26 With static stretching golgi tendons are able to override impulses from muscle spindle following initial reflex resistance Allows muscle to remain stretched without injury PNF benefits greatly from these principles With slow-reversal hold technique, maximal contraction of muscle stimulates GTO reflex relaxation before stretch applied

27 Relaxation of antagonist during contraction = autogenic inhibition
During relaxation phase, antagonist is placed under stretch but assisted by agonist contraction to pull further Contraction elicits additional relaxation of antagonist (protect against injury) Referred to as reciprocal inhibition

28 Flexibility vs. Strength
Co-exist Muscle bound = zero flexibility Strength training will provide individual with ability to develop dynamic flexibility through full range of motion Develop more powerful and coordinated movements

29 Measuring Range of Motion
Various devices have been designed to accommodate joint sizes and complexities of movement Goniometer most widely used device Protractor (degrees) that utilizes alignment of two arms parallel to longitudinal axis of two segments involved in motion Relatively accurate tool for measurement


31 Flexibility, Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Power

32 Muscle Strength, Power, and Endurance
Strength: ability to generate force against resistance Power: is the relationship between strength and time Muscular endurance: repetitive muscular contractions (increase strength = increase endurance

33 Muscle Contractions Isometric contraction Isotonic contraction
No length change occurs during contraction Pro: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab Con: only works at one point in ROM Isotonic contraction Concentric- shortening of muscle with contraction in an effort to overcome more resistance Eccentric - lengthening of muscle with contraction because load is greater than force being produced Both are considered dynamic movements


35 Fast Twitch vs. Slow Twitch
Motor units with distinct metabolic and contractile capability Slow twitch (Type I): Fatigue resistant Time necessary to produce force is greater Long duration, aerobic type activities Generally major constituent of postural muscles

36 Metabolic capabilities can change in response to training
Fast twitch (Type II) Fatigue Anaerobic in nature High force in short amount of time Produce powerful movements A vs. B Individual make-up Muscles contain both types of fibers Muscle functioning impacts ratios (postural vs. powerful movement) Genetically determined Metabolic capabilities can change in response to training

37 Factors that Determine Levels of Muscular Strength
Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy Size of muscle: function of diameter and number of fibers Neuromuscular efficiency Biomechanical factors Overtraining (psychologically, physiologically) Reversibility

38 Physiology of Strength Development
Three theories of muscle hypertrophy: Increase in number of fibers Infusion of blood - transient hypertrophy Increase in protein myofilament number and size PROVEN Other enhancements due to training Increased noncontractile tissue strength, bone mineral content, aerobic/anaerobic enzymes, enhanced oxygen uptake

39 Techniques of Resistance Training
Progressive resistance exercise Overload principle must be applied Must work muscle at increasingly higher intensities to enhance strength over time If intensity of training does not increase, but training continues, muscle strength will be sustained

40 Overload Principle Activity must be increased and upgraded constantly in order to gain a higher response from the body Work at or near maximum capacity Applicable to conditioning and training

41 Isometric Exercises Contraction where muscle length remains unchanged
Muscle contraction that lasts 10 seconds and should be perform 5-10 times/daily Pro: quick, effective, cheap, good for rehab Con: only works at one point in ROM, produces spiking of blood pressure due to Valsalva maneuver

42 Progressive Resistance Exercises (Isotonic training)
Shortening/lengthening Concentric vs. Eccentric Various types of equipment can be utilized (Free weights, machine weight) Spotter is necessary for free weight training to prevent injury, motivate partner and instruct on technique

43 Variations exist between free and machine weight lifting
Concentric and eccentric training should be incorporated for greatest strength improvement Concentric phase of lift should last 1-2 seconds, eccentric phase 2-4 seconds Variations exist between free and machine weight lifting Motion restrictions, levels of muscular control required, amount of weight that can be lifted

44 Terminology associated with weight training
Repetitions Repetition maximum One repetition maximum Set Intensity Recovery period Frequency

45 When training should be able to perform 3 sets of 6-8 repetitions
Increases should occur in increments of 10% 1 RM can be utilized measure maximum amount of weight that can be lifted - must be very careful Training of a particular muscle group should occur 3-4 times per week (not on successive days)

46 Muscular Endurance vs. Strength
Training for endurance enhances strength and vice versa Training for strength should involve lower repetitions at heavier weight Training for endurance requires lower weight at repetitions

47 Isokinetic Training Muscle contraction at a constant velocity
Maximal and constant resistance throughout the full range of motion Maximal effort = Maximal strength gains Disadvantages Cost Need for maximal effort/motivation Rehab


49 Circuit Training Combination of exercise stations
stations, 3 times through Design for different training goals Flexibility Calisthenics Aerobic exercise

50 Calisthenic Strengthening Exercises
Free exercise Isotonic training Gravity’s involvement determines level of intensity Full range of motion, may incorporate holding phase Pull-ups, push-ups, back extensions, leg extensions

51 Plyometric Exercise Rapid stretch, eccentric contraction followed by a rapid concentric contraction to create a forceful explosive movement Rate of stretch vs. magnitude Jumps, bounds, medicine ball throws Very technical training - skills must be learned with appropriate technique

52 Training for the Female Athlete
Critical for female athlete Significant hypertrophy is related to testosterone present within body Remarkable gains are experienced initially due to enhanced nervous system and muscle interaction (efficiency-not muscle bulk) Following initial gains, plateau occurs, with females

53 Males tend to continue to increase strength with training
Critical difference is the ratio of strength to body fat Females have reduced strength to body weight ratio due to higher percentage of body fat Ratio can be enhanced through weight training and decrease in body fat percentage/increased lean weight

54 Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Perform whole body activities for extended period of time Performance vs. fatigue vs. injury System’s four components Heart Lungs Blood vessels Blood Improvements in endurance are the results of improvements in these 4 components

55 Aerobic capacity = VO2max
Increases in intensity require higher levels of oxygen consumption Inherit certain range of maximum aerobic capacity More active = higher capacity Average value = ml O2/min/kg Three factors impact capacity External respiration Ventilatory process Gas transportation (most limiting factor)

56 Impact on Heart Main pumping mechanism
Increase exercise = increased oxygen requirement=increase heart pumping Heart must gradually adapt to imposed demands but will reach steady state after 2-3 minutes of training Heart able to adapt through increases in heart rate and stroke volume which will enhance overall cardiac output

57 A training effect results with regard to cardiac output.
Over the course of training, at a given intensity, stroke volume increases while heart is reduced Cardiac functioning becomes more efficient (hypertrophy of heart occurs)

58 Energy Systems Various sports entail different energy demands
Long distance running and swimming vs. sprinting and jumping ATP: Immediate Energy Source ATP produced from glucose breakdown Glucose from blood or glycogen (muscle or liver) broken down to glucose converted to ATP Fat becomes utilized when glycogen stores depleted

59 Aerobic versus anaerobic
Both generate ATP Initial ATP production from glucose occurs in muscle (without oxygen = anaerobic) Transition to glucose and fat oxidation (requiring oxygen = aerobic) to continue activity Generally both systems occur to a degree simultaneously Type of ATP production relative to intensity Short burst (high intensity) = anaerobic Long duration (sustained intensity) = aerobic

60 Types of Training for Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Continuous Mode (type of exercise) - must be aerobic in nature Frequency (at least 3 times/week) Duration(at least 20 minutes) Intensity (must elevate heart rate to 70% of maximum)


62 Interval training Intermittent activities involving periods of intense work and active recovery Must occur at 60-80% of maximal heart rate Allows for higher intensity training at short intervals over an extended period of time Most anaerobic sports require short burst which can be mimicked through interval training

63 Fartlek training Cross-country running that originated in Sweden
Speed play Similar to interval training in the fact activity occurs over a specific period of time but pace and speed are not specified Consists of varied terrain which incorporates varying degrees of hills Dynamic form of training Must elevate heart rate to minimal levels to be effective Popular form of training in off-season

64 Equipment for Endurance Training
Cost can vary from $2- $60,000 Jump rope to treadmill and computers Fitness Assessments Provides coaching and athletic training personnel with information relative to fitness and preparedness Pre-testing and post-testing format should be utilized Can assess all facets of training and conditioning with established tests and protocols

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