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Estimating the number of Broodfish and Spawning. Number of Broodfish Production goals determine the number of broodfish required to produce the desired.

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Presentation on theme: "Estimating the number of Broodfish and Spawning. Number of Broodfish Production goals determine the number of broodfish required to produce the desired."— Presentation transcript:

1 Estimating the number of Broodfish and Spawning

2 Number of Broodfish Production goals determine the number of broodfish required to produce the desired number of fingerlings If fingerlings are used on the farm, the producer only needs enough to replace the fish that will be harvested and sold in the following year If the fingerlings will be sold to other producers, the annual production goal is based on the number of fingerlings needed to achieve a certain income Production may be limited by the available pond space

3 Number of Broodfish The number of pounds of female broodfish required to produce a specific number of fingerlings can be estimated based on: Assumption of egg production Survival of eggs to fry in the hatchery Survival of fry to fingerlings in the nursery

4 Number of Broodfish ConditionsDesired NumberNumber Needed 70% of swim-up fry survive to become fingerlings 1,000,000 (million) fingerlings 1,000,000/0.70=1,429,000 swim-up fry required 80% survival in the hatchery from egg to swim-up fry 1,000,000 (million) fingerlings 1,429,000/0.80=1,786,000 eggs required 3,000 eggs are produced per pound of body weight 1,000,000 (million) fingerlings 1,786,000/3,000=596 pounds of female broodfish required

5 Number of Broodfish The average range of broodfish ponds used in the southeastern U.S. is 5 to 30 acres The more manageable ponds range from 5 to 10 acres Stocking broodfish into several ponds is recommended Stocking all of the broodfish into one pond is risky All of the broodfish and subsequent progeny could be lost if water quality deteriorates or a disease outbreak occurs

6 Spawning Seasonal changes in water temperature control the reproductive cycle in channel catfish Exposure to water temperatures below 50 F for a month or more over the winter stimulates egg production The subsequent slow rise in the average water temperature to 68 to 77 F initiates spawning in the spring

7 Spawning The majority of channel catfish are spawned using the open pond method: Broodfish are held in ponds with spawning containers Can be milk or cream cans, metal barrels, nail kegs, tile, ammunition cans, plastic buckets, or plastic containers The fish are allowed to select their mates and spawn naturally

8 Spawning Most spawning containers have an internal volume of 20 gallons and an opening of 6 to 9 inches across Spawning containers are not placed in the pond until the water temperature reaches 75 F The channel catfish spawning season in the U.S. can begin in early April and last until mid-July

9 Spawning The length of the season and the start of the season depend on water temperature Once water temperature has reached 70 F and remains at that temperature for at least 3 consecutive days, spawning begins In the southern U.S. spawning season usually begins in late April In the northern U.S. spawning season does not begin until mid-May

10 Spawning Spawning containers are placed in the ponds several days before the beginning of spawning season This gives the males time to clean and prepare them Containers are placed along the pond bank in 2 to 3 feet of water at 10- to 30-foot intervals with the open end of the container toward the center of the pond Containers are marked with a stake or float for convenient location when there is need to check for egg masses

11 Spawning Not all fish spawn at the same time It is not necessary to have a spawning container for every pair of fish The number of containers needed depends on whether the egg mass will remain in the pond and receive paternal care or will be removed to the hatchery If egg masses are not immediately removed to the hatchery, more containers will be needed because each container will be occupied longer

12 Spawning Various ratios of containers to stocked broodfish pairs have been used 1:4 and 1:5 are common Spawning may cease if water quality deteriorates or weather turns unreasonably warm Spawning may resume if water temperature drops within 10 to 25 days of the onset of warm weather One option may be to drain the pond and replace one- fourth to one-half of the pond water with cool, high quality well water to resume spawning

13 Spawning Once spawning begins, containers should be inspected during the late morning of every third or fourth day to determine if eggs are present If little or no spawning activity occurs, broodstock should be checked for parasites or disease Always continue feeding

14 Spawning You may want to consider moving the fish if the lack of spawning cannot be attributed to poor water quality or disease You can resume spawning by moving the fish to newly filled ponds or into existing brood ponds where spawning has been successful and is nearly complete

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