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2.4.1 Biomes and aquatic ecosystems

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Presentation on theme: "2.4.1 Biomes and aquatic ecosystems"— Presentation transcript:

1 2.4.1 Biomes and aquatic ecosystems

2 Major Ecosystems of the World

3 alpine vs arctic tundra
Biomes of the World 1. The Tundra 1. Extremely cold climate 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Permafrost  limited drainage 5. Short growing season 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Large population oscillations alpine vs arctic tundra


5 Biomes of the World 3. Temperate Rain Forest
1. Located on NW coast of No. America 2. Moderate climate and high annual rainfall 3. Relatively nutrient-poor soils 4. Forests subject to heavy logging pressure.

6 4. Temperate Deciduous Forest
Biomes of the World 4. Temperate Deciduous Forest 1. Located in the mid-latitude areas 2. Four distinct seasons 3. Short, cold winters & long, hot, wet summers 4. Trees adapted to the winter with a period of dormancy and thick bark to protect them from the cold weather

7 Biomes of the World 5. Grasslands
1. Composed of a rich mix of grasses and forbs and some of the world's most fertile soils 2. Semiarid, continental climate 3. Summers tend to be dry 4. Most precipitation falls at start of growing season

8 6. Chaparral (aka: scrub forest)
Biomes of the World 6. Chaparral (aka: scrub forest) 1. Composed of drought tolerant trees, shrubs, and grasses 2. Occur in California, coastal Mediterranean, and south coast of Australia 3. Plants go dormant during very dry summer 4. Most precipitation falls in winter

9 Biomes of the World 7. Deserts
1. Arid, with annual rainfall less than 10 in. 2. Plants adapted to conserve water over long periods (e.g. cacti, sagebrush, and mesquite) or germinate, develop to maturity, flower, and produce a new crop of seeds within a few weeks following a rain event 3. Animals burrow to escape the heat of the desert sun

10 Biomes of the World 8. Savanna 1. Tropical grasslands
2. Tropical climate with alternate wet and dry seasons 3. Characterized by a continuous cover of perennial grasses

11 Biomes of the World 9. Tropical Rain Forests
1. Earth's most complex biome in terms of structure and species diversity 2. Climate characterized by abundant precipitation and year round warmth 3. Trees vertically stratification into three distinct layers

12 Aquatic Ecosystems Trophic Levels

13 Environmental Factors
Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Temperature

14 Environmental Factors
Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Light

15 Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Salinity
Lake Michigan 0.5 PPT Baltic Sea 5-15 PPT The Dead Sea 332 PPT The Black Sea 16 PPT The Red Sea & The Persian Gulf 40 PPT Pacific Ocean 36 PPT

16 Environmental Factors
Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Currents

17 Aquatic Ecosystems Environmental Factors Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Depth (m) Temperature (ºC) Dissolved Oxygen Temperature

18 Aquatic Ecosystems Zonation

19 Aquatic Ecosystems Human Impacts
Waterways across the United States are contaminated by a medicine chest of antibiotics, hormones, caffeine, painkillers and other drugs Agricultural runoff can carry fertilizers, including traces of antibiotics and hormones, into waterways

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