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Exercise Physiology & Intelligent Training

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Physiology & Intelligent Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Physiology & Intelligent Training
Julie Downing, PhD, FACSM Central Oregon Community College Health & Human Performance Professor, Exercise Physiology Lab Director, & National Chair of ACSM Personal Training Committee

2 COCC Exercise Physiology Lab

3 Outline The basics of Training: The three fives:
5 parts of physical fitness 5 parts of an exercise routine 5 consideration of an exercise plan 4 Training Zones Periodization Overtraining Physiology of Aging

4 5 Parts of Physical Fitness
Cardiorespiratory Fitness Tests Rockport Walk Test 1.5 Mile Run Test Astrand-Rhyming Bike Test Step test Go to a lab and have it actually measured with a metabolic system = VO2max

5 2) Muscular Endurance 3) Muscular Strength submaximal
Can measure with timed pushups or sit-ups, etc. 3) Muscular Strength Maximal Can measure with grip strength or 1-RM max

6 Flexibility Body Composition
Can measure with Sit-n-reach or body rotation, etc. Body Composition Fit = 18-24% for women & 10-17% for men Order of accuracy: DXA, Underwater weighing, Bod Pod, Skinfolds, Infrared, BIA, others…

7 5 parts of an Exercise Routine
Warm-up Pre-stretch? Dynamic or static? Activity Cool-down Post-stretch

8 5 parts of an Exercise Plan (FITTP)
Frequency Intensity Heart rate, watts, RPE, pace, talk test Type Time Progression Baby steps

9 4 Training Zones Zone 1: Basic Endurance
For easy, long, recovery, warm-ups, cool-downs Necessary to build the base & achieve more capillaries & enhanced mitochondria, etc. LSD days, % in zone 1 (90 min) Maintenance days, >70% in zone (30-60 min) Emphasis is in the off-season but do NOT neglect during the season MOST IMPORTANT!!!!!!

10 Mitochondria - the powerhouse of the cell, converts foodstuffs into energy when oxygen is present.

11 Increased capillarization

12 Zone 2: Speed Endurance If used too much in place of zone 1, we call it “No Man’s Land” “Junk Miles” – fatigues the body OK to spend < 30% of the time on your easy days & < 20% of the time on your LSD days here but NOT more Late off-season & early pre-season, intervals performed at the top of this zone

13 Zone 3: Lactate Threshold (LT) Plus
From just under LT to a couple beats over LT The whole idea is to move the lactate curve out to the right

14 Lactate Threshold (aka Anaerobic Threshold)
“The point at which the body can no longer clear the lactic acid as fast as it is producing it”

15 Zone 3: LT continued LT heart rate is slower than race pace for short events, similar to medium-duration events (example: 10K run), and faster than long events During the pre-season, 1-2 x week (NO MORE) either “cruise” intervals or “tempo” training. It is best to alternate cruise and tempo training. Don’t do the same thing every week. Variety is very important!

16 Two ways to work LT: TEMPO TRAINING Warm-up > 15 minutes in zone 1
Straight minutes in zone 3, basically a mini-time trial Cool down > 15 minutes in zone 1

17 Two ways to work LT: 2) CRUISE INTERVALS
Warm-up > 15 minutes in zone 1 Accumulate minutes worth of intervals in zone 3, interval duration should be 2-10 minutes with rest = 75% of the duration of the interval, use ladders, repeats, etc. Example: 4 x 4 minute intervals Cool down > 15 minutes in zone 1

18 Zone 4: Maximal Oxygen Consumption
NOT necessary for most people Short, fast intervals 6-8 wks before “big” event Will get you fit very quickly, but you can only hold onto that fitness for a short period of time 30 sec to 2 min intervals & time in this zone should NOT exceed 5-10 minutes per workout. Example: 6 x 1 minute intervals

19 “We need to learn to set our course by the stars, not by the light of every passing ship.”
Omar Bradley

20 Periodization Definition: organized structure of training over an extended period of time The year is divided into distinct periods each with a purpose Main goals: To reach competitive potential To ensure that peak performances are achieved at the appropriate time To avoid boredom / overtraining To optimize training time

21 Periodization History
1940’s USSR began using a wave-like pattern throughout the year 1960’s Romanian Tudor Bompa modernized the concept & wrote a book that western athletes quickly adopted. Bompa known as the “father of periodization” Other influences: Arthur Lydiard (New Zealand) & Bill Bowerman (U.S.) 1940’s-1060’s with running

22 What most people do Random (“Haphazard”) training
Do what you feel like Little or no planning Primarily dictated by training partners, weather, mood  No peaking Often train in “No Man’s Land” Ok if you just want to participate & finish

23 Periodization Blocks Microcycle Mesocycle Macrocycle
Shortest block (usually one week but may be 10 days) Mesocycle Grouping of microcycles of one general type or purpose, usually 6-8 weeks to allow time for cumulative adaptations Macrocycle Usually one racing season, may be 3-4 months up to a year

24 Mesocycles Example #2 by Jeff Galloway
Base-training Hill-training Speedwork Off-season

25 Overtraining Also known as “staleness”
“Excessive overload which negates the benefits of months of hard training, leaving you unable to produce a performance representative of your potential” Imbalance between training & recovery

26 How do you become overtrained?
Too long Too hard Too often Too soon Too much of one thing Other factors: Improper nutrition, extreme heat, extreme cold, high altitude, mental stress

27 Overtraining Signs & Symptoms
Decreased performance Heaviness, extreme chronic fatigue Elevated morning pulse (>10% or 10 bpm) Elevated blood lactate, heart rate, & VO2 during submaximal exercise Inability to reach max heart rate or VO2max

28 Signs & Symptoms continued
Body weight loss (decreased body fat) with decreased appetite (decreased body fat) Altered mood state: irritability, depression, listlessness, low morale, lack of enthusiasm Muscle tenderness / soreness

29 7 Keys to Prevent Overtraining
1) Listen to your body!!!!!! 2) “Hard-easy” principle 3) Periodize training 4) Schedule complete rest days, active recovery days, & cross-training days 5) Do NOT up volume >10%/wk after 20 min goal 6) Have a physiology test then FOLLOW the advice!! 7) If in doubt, refer out Examples: Certified Personal Trainer, Wellness Coach, Dietician, Sports Psychologist, Sports Physician, etc.

30 Overtraining Example Male college cross-country runner
Early season on 6 min/mile pace VO2 = 49 ml/kg/min & HR = 142 bpm Best race = 30:53 10K Late season on 6 min/mile pace VO2 = 56 ml/kg/min & HR = 168 bpm Best race = 32:10 10K

31 Aging Gender is a significant factor Lifestyle a primary factor

32 Age & Endurance Performance
Main reason seniors are slower is the decrease in VO2max. How? VO2max = SV x HR x avO2diff Inactive Max HR goes down 10 beats/10 yrs Active Max HR goes down 5-7 beats/10 yrs Inactive VO2max decrease = 10%/decade after age 25 Active VO2max decrease = 5%/decade after age 25 Also, seniors don’t recover as fast after exercise

33 Successful Aging Recent research:
Elderly individuals with weak muscles are at greater risk for mortality than age-matched individuals Increase in amount and rate of loss of muscle increases risk of premature death Physical inactivity is 3rd leading cause of death in US and plays role in chronic illnesses of aging


35 3 Energy Systems 1) Creatine-phosphate system 2) Glycolysis
Anaerobic (with OUT oxygen) Aerobic (with oxygen) 3) Aerobic System Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System *** All 3 systems start together ***

36 Mesocycles Example #1 by Joe Friel
General Preparation (base-building) 4-16 weeks Specific Preparation (early-season) 4-12 weeks Pre-competition (in-season build) 1-4 weeks Competition (peak week/s) Usually one week but could be more Transition (post-season rest with active recovery, 1-6 weeks)

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